The Production of Expanded. Shale Aggregates

CIM Bulletin1955
ONE OF :THE most effective methods by which the construction industry is combatting mounting building costs is by making increased use of lightweight materials, thus reducing the dead load to be carried by structures. This applies to non-metallic materials as well as to metallic ones, and particular attention has been given to developing lightweight aggregates for use in concrete. The use of lightweight aggregates is not new and, in fact, dates back to the Roman Empire, when pumice was used in the walls and domes of the Roman buildings. More recently, and up to a decade or so ago, the demand for these aggregates was met from deposits of volcanic cinders, pumice, scoria, etc., and from the by-products of blast furnaces and coal burning boilers. However, these sources of supply are no longer sufficient to meet the demand, for transportation costs pretty well restrict the use of the natural lightweight aggregates to the western cordillera regions where the deposits of these materials occur, and the use of expanded slag aggregates to the areas neighbouring the plants where slags are produced. As for cinders, the supply has been greatly reduced by the conversion of industry to fuel oil, natural gas, and powdered coal, and the large stockpiles which existed previously have been pretty well exhausted.
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