Designing lanterns for the efficient lighting of mine roadways - An experimental approach

Abstract The file is a zipped PDF document.No person can properly work without sufficient lighting and this is especially so in mines where conditions are difficult. Artificial lighting is very important for the night shift to provide a safe and efficient working environment. Haul roads within the pit are one of the critical areas in surface mines where lighting installations are not permanent due to regular advancement of the working face. The illumination design should fulfil the minimum lighting standards (illuminance level and uniformity) specified by various regulatory bodies. This is possible with the scientific designing of a lighting system. An unplanned illumination system may not provide satisfactory illumination. It may also incur high costs. In general, the practice in India is to use a single-sided haul road lighting arrangement with the mounting height of light sources varying from 8 m to 12 m. In most of the mechanized mines, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, like high-pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) and high-pressure mercury vapour (HPMV) lamps, are used for illumination, whereas in small, semi-mechanized mines, fluorescent tube lights (FTL) with HID lamps at junctions are preferred. The foremost important aspect of the lighting design is to provide sufficient illuminance to visually complete the task. During an illumination survey of a large mechanized mine, it was found that the illumination level varied and was not uniform throughout the length of the haul road. The light level at some patches was below the minimum light level standard.This paper deals with the critical analysis of a haul road 590 m in length. The illumination survey results show that the light level is high at one side of the road instead of at the centre. There were also different combinations of lamps, with the angles of the light arms varying from 35º to 70º. It was also found that these combinations were selected without any specific reason. To analyze the influence of design parameters on the distribution of light, an experiment was conducted with a fabricated telescopic light pole. The height of the pole was 6 m, with a telescopic range between 3 m and 6 m. The angle of the light arm can be varied from 0º to 90º vertically.For plotting the isolux contours of a fixed installation, the ground was divided into grids of 2 m by 2 m, covering an area of 14 m by 24 m. The illuminance level was measured at each grid point using a digital luxmeter. The analysis was done by plotting isolux contours for fixed installations and drawing graphs for various combinations of luminaries, reflectors, light arm angles and height of lanterns by plotting the horizontal angle of the light arm along the abscissa and contour area along ordinate.The results of the study show that the optimum range of the light arm angle for the side reflector is 20º to 30º, whereas for the pot reflector, the angle is higher, i.e. 30º to 45º. The isolux contours indicate that the pot reflector with a combination of tubular bulbs produces a wide distribution of light and contributes towards a reduction of luminaries when installed in longer roads. The elliptical and tubular bulb with the side reflectors favour the area lighting.The outcome of the study reveals that the design parameters of the lantern are mainly dependent on the type of luminaries. The combination of sources and reflectors and the area under the illuminance increases with the height of the lantern and the angle of the light arm from the horizontal.
Keywords: Illumination, Lamp, Roadways, Lantern, Contour
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Summary: The file is a zipped PDF document.A survey of 281 mineral exploration agreements from 1988 to 1992 examines the ratios between the three ways to purchase an interest in a mineral property, viz. pay cash, pay shares, and make future expenditures on the property.The Northern Miner is used as the source to create a database for this study. Information about each agreement has been collected from volumes 74, 76, and 78 for the years 1988, 1990, and 1992, respectively. All agreements for which a...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. Kilburn
Keywords: Mineral exploration, Option agreements, Property valuation, Canadian, 1/9th Rule, Fair market value
Issue: 1090
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The file is a zipped PDF document.The combination of a predictive reliability assessment model and discrete-event simulation can be an effective methodology to study the impact of equipment failures on the capacity of production systems in mines. In this study, a predictive reliability assessment model using genetic algorithms is combined with a discrete-event simulation model to analyze mine equipment systems.Discrete-event simulation studies the evolution of a system as variables change...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): N. Vayenas, G. Yuriy
Keywords: Simulation, Underground, Hard rock, Load haul dump (LHD), Mean time between failures (MTBF)
Issue: 1090
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The file is a zipped PDF document.Thirty per cent of the electrical energy in Turkey is provided by coal-fired thermoelectric power plants. Five per cent of the demand is met by the Soma power plant’s six 165 MW generators. The plant is fed by lignite from open pit and underground mines in the Soma region that are operated by the government. With a nationalized mining policy in place, recently no investment has been made at these mines, as mining activity is generally considered by the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.O. Aksoy, H. Kose, T. Malli, K. Ozfirat, A. Gonen, S. Gurgen
Keywords: Optimization, Cost, Drilling, Blasting, Load-haul
Issue: 1090
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The file is a zipped PDF document.Experience shows that energy management is successful when the energy is managed like a resource, i.e. continuously, systematically, and in an organized manner, not like an expense (e.g. worrying about and paying the bills once a month). This requires the development and implementation of an energy management program (EMP).Following is a summary of guidelines for setting up a successful EMP, plant- or corporation-wide. The main driving forces of a successful...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. Berkley
Keywords: Energy, Management, Efficiency
Issue: 1090
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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