High-pressure direct injection of natural gas in a diesel engine for high performance/low emissions

The North American mining industry faces challenging emissions regulations in future years with the introduction of new standards for off-road diesel engines. In order to remain competitive, industry stakeholders must invest in new technologies that are economically and environmentally sustainable.
Westport Innovations Inc., in Vancouver, British Columbia, has developed high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology that allows diesel engines to run primarily on natural gas with no intrusive engine modifications while reducing emissions of NOx, particulate matter, and CO2 with no loss in performance. This is accomplished through late-cycle, high-pressure direct injection of natural gas into a diesel engine combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. A small amount of diesel fuel is injected first to initiate combustion, followed by the main natural gas fuel injection. The diesel cycle and its operating characteristics are fully retained including high combustion efficiency, low-speed torque, high-power output, no engine knock, and fast response to load changes. Traditionally, natural gas has not been an attractive fuel alternative in mining operations due to reduced performance associated with spark ignition engines and the added weight and space required for compressed natural gas tanks. However, liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be stored with less impact on weight and space than compressed natural gas (CNG) by virtue of its increased energy density.
Westport has applied HPDI technology to the Cummins QSK series engines for high horsepower applications such as power generation and mine haul trucks. HPDI can also be applied to other engine manufacturer platforms and market applications. Westport is interested in demonstrating the unique characteristics of HPDI in mine haul trucks to show diesel performance with low emissions levels using low-cost LNG fuel.
Retrofitting a Tier I engine with HPDI would provide emission reductions below the EPA 2006 Tier II standards while maintaining the performance and efficiency of the Tier I platform. The longer term target is the “Blue-Sky” voluntary standards of 3.8 g/kW-hr (2.8 g/bhp-hr) of NOx + nmHC and 0.12 g/kW-hr (0.09 g/bhp-hr) of PM and Tier III standards. Typically, an HPDI engine is capable of reducing NOx emissions by 40% over diesel operation at the same efficiency. On a mining truck meeting Tier II standards, this NOx reduction would amount to approximately 14 t/yr less than in diesel operation. PM emissions are typically reduced by some 60% with HPDI fueling, which would translate into a yearly reduction of 650 kg. Similarly, engine-out greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are reduced by 21%, resulting in a yearly reduction of approximately 950 t per vehicle.
As well as emission reductions, efficient natural gas usage in mine haul operations would offer significant benefits in terms of fuel cost savings, which may be further combined with monetary emission credits. HPDI technology would enable operators to exercise environmental stewardship while gaining a competitive advantage in advance of new Tier II and Tier III emissions regulations. The advantages of natural gas use among mine haul truck operations can be replicated across a broad range of engines and applications.
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Summary: This paper describes the challenges of mining a sill pillar under various types of paste backfill quality. From 1994 to 2002, Louvicourt mine produced approximately 12,600,000 t grading 3.5% Cu, 1.5% Zn, 27 g/mt Ag, and 0.85 g/mt Au. The mining method is transverse blasthole stoping, mining primary and secondary stopes. The production of this 4,300 t/d operation was accomplished using two mining horizons: from the 655 m level to the 415 m level and from the 860 m level to the 680 m level. The...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. Fleury
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The minerals industry’s inherent international scope has led to raising the requisite capital in various jurisdictions, independent of a mining company’s management or operations base. While this creates various financing options, it can still be a challenge to raise the requisite capital given the requirement for large amounts of high-risk capital. As a consequence, the minerals industry must develop efficient means to attain this capital, the most important of which is providing investors...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): W.S. Vaughan, S. Felderhof
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: In Mexico alone, as much as 10,000 tons of dross is annually available. The secondary aluminum dross generally requires specially designed disposal facilities, as this material is considered toxic by environmental legislation in many countries. As it can be inferred, the dross treatment is important for two main reasons: the necessity of recovering aluminum from the dross, and the possibility to transform some of the dross components in by-products for industrial use, avoiding the necessity...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.M. Almanza, A. Flores, J.C. Escobedo B., D.A. Cortés
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: Highland Valley Copper has been mining its Valley pit since 1982. This pit requires large quantities of water-bearing overburden to be stripped away to expose the porphyry copper deposit underneath it. In order to dewater the aquifers, the mine began extracting groundwater in 1985 through the implementation of strategically placed deepwells containing submersible pump sets.
Initially, dewatering focused on aquifers close to the topographic surface and pumping flow rate targets were set in...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.A. Witt
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: Durant les dix dernières années, les améliorations dans le contrôle des limites de sautage ainsi que les arpentages avant et après l’exploitation ont fourni des informations pre et post facto sur les limites de sautage réalisées par rapport à celles planifiées, particulièrement pour les grands chantiers exploités par les méthodes chambres vides et à sous-niveaux. Cependant, peu de recherches ont été faites pour améliorer la délimitation du minerai, l’estimation des ressources et des réserves...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S. Planeta et M. Vallée
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The International Rock Excavation Data Exchange Standard (IREDES) initiative and organization was launched during MineExpo 2000 in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States. IREDES sets the global standard for data exchange between equipment used for rock excavation and equipment users involved in the rock excavation process.
Companies from the mining industry, together with Atlas Copco and LKAB Kiruna mine, were the founders of IREDES. Today, the organization has close to twenty member companies, all...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M. Ramström, U. Olsson
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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Summary: The Antamina orebody is a geologically complex, polymetallic skarn located in the Peruvian Andes. Different copper and copper-zinc ores are campaigned separately through the concentrator producing copper and zinc concentrates as well as lead and molybdenum by-products.
Ore type classification at Antamina is based on chemical assays; geological or lithological variations are not considered. Consequently, each ore type demonstrates a wide range of concentrator performance.
Antamina is currently...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): A. Dance
Issue: 1086
Volume: 98
Year: 2005
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