Indicator mineral and till geochemical methods for kimberlite exploration in glaciated terrain

Abstract This paper summarizes diamond exploration techniques used in glaciated terrain, focussing on indicator mineral and geochemical methods applied to glacial sediments. Understanding the ice flow history, depositional history, and stratigraphy of glacial sediments is essential to successful sampling, interpretation and follow-up of indicator mineral and geochemical anomalies related to kimberlites. Kimberlite indicator minerals survive glacial transport over long distances and the relative abundance of each mineral in till is a function of the primary mineralogy of individual kimberlites. Indicator mineral distributions observed at a regional scale define the net effect of glacial dispersal, often along different ice flow directions. Local-scale distributions define individual dispersal trains. The medium sand (0.25 mm to 0.5 mm) fraction of heavy mineral concentrates, prepared from glacial sediment samples, is best suited for indicator mineral surveys. The application of till geochemistry to diamond exploration is increasing because it is significantly cheaper than indicator mineral analysis and it can be performed quickly. The <0.063 mm (silt+clay) and 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm (coarse sand) fractions provide the best geochemical contrast between background and kimberlite-rich till. Kimberlite pathfinder elements that provide good contrast include Ni, Cr, Ba, Co, Sr, Rb, Nb, Mg, Ta, Ca, Fe, K, Ti and LREE, the relative importance of which will depend on kimberlite composition and that of the surrounding bedrock.
Keywords: Diamonds, Exploration techniques, Geochemical methods, Kimberlites, Till geochemistry, Glaciated terrain
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Summary: Exploration properties form a continuum from grass roots to those with favourable geology, geochemical and/or geophysical anomalies, mineralization, showings (prospects), and finally to those with defined mineral deposits. Often, properties exhibit a composite of these categories. The most problematic to value are properties or deposits that are not economically exploitable at the time of the valuation due to a lack of exploration, insufficient grade or tonnage, poor mining conditions, or the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): I.S. Thompson
Keywords: Valuation, Exploration properties, Mineral resources
Issue: 1061
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: This paper deals with the results of the variation of thermal conductivity of rocks with pressure on a laboratory scale. For this purpose, the authors have added a pressure-supplying unit to the apparatus developed by Mousset-Jones and McPherson (1986), Önder (1995), Ashworth and Ashworth (1979), and Innaurato and Occella (1989) in order to measure the thermal conductivity under pressure. The values obtained from the tests performed by this new apparatus have been stated using a regression...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Y.S. Durutürk, A. Demirci, A. Keçeciler
Keywords: Mine heat, Geothermal gradients, Heat transfer, Thermal conductivity
Issue: 1061
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: The 1990s saw enormous changes in the Canadian coal industry and the future promises to be no less turbulent. While the markets served by Canadian coal producers have changed and buying practices continue to evolve, the coal mining, or supply side, has also changed remarkably in response and now provides the basis for an interesting industry story. The dynamic situation in coal mining has led to some surprising outcomes and seemingly contradictory developments. This paper outlines the changes...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D.O. Downing
Keywords: Coal mining, Supply, Technology, Productivity, Resource development
Issue: 1061
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: Recognition of the diamond potential of the Wawa subprovince was initially determined from regional data using a kimberlite model. The world’s largest stable Precambrian craton, the Superior Province, is considered to be favourable for the emplacement of diamondiferous kimberlite. The Wawa area is located near the intersection of intra-craton structures visible in the regional magnetic data. The Enigma project is located north of the town of Wawa in northern Ontario. From field evidence and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J. Buckle
Keywords: Diamonds, Enigma project, Exploration, Kimberlites
Issue: 1061
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: The Freightrain kimberlite is located on the Brodeur Peninsula, Baffin Island, Nunavut. Twin Mining is exploring the pipe and adjacent land (79 claims/655 km2) using a combination of airborne geophysics, soil sampling, diamond drilling, trenching and bulk sample processing. The pipe originally was discovered by Cominco Limited in 1975, re-evaluated in 1993 by Lumina Investment Corporation, when it was staked as the Zulu pipe, and subsequently covered by three claims in 1998 by Helix Resources...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): B.C. Jago, D. Davis, H. Derbuch
Keywords: Industrial minerals, Kimberlite, Brodeur Peninsula, Geology, Geological surveying
Issue: 1061
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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