Simulation of possible Bronze Age copper-iron alloy production by smelting dead-roasted ferruginous sulphidic copper ores

Abstract This experiment was carried out to see whether copper-iron ingots from Late Bronze Age hoards could have been produced by smelting ferruginous copper ores. Since ferruginous copper-ores are chalcopyritic, chalcopyritic concentrate from a present day copper mine was dead roasted in our experiment in lieu of a rich chalcopyritic ore. Charcoal was used as a reducing agent in the reduction of calcine (i.e., a product of dead-roasting), and quartz sand was used as a flux. Two separate metallic solutions, a copper-base and an iron-base alloy, were obtained as a result of two factors: the presence of carbon and the miscibility gap in the Cu-Fe-C system. The metallic melts appeared in a form of bigger or smaller droplets, enclosed by a molten slag which, during the cooling, solidified into metallic beads. The presence of both metals was noticed in the majority of the examined beads. It was therefore concluded that calcine consisted of an intimate mixture of oxides of both metals which were simultaneously reduced during the reduction process. Due to the miscibility gap in the Cu-Fe-C system, separate iro
Keywords: Archaeometallurgy, Bronze Age, Smelting, Copper, Copper-iron alloy, Ramo-secco bar.
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Summary: The development and commercial operation of the Falconbridge chlorine leach process have been described in papers in 1985 and 1987. Since this time, various process improvements have been implemented and the capacity of the Kristiansand refinery has been increased to 85 000 t/y Ni, 40 0000 t/y Cu and 4500 t/y Co. The focus has been on continuous improvements in productivity, the use of energy and other costs. Several environmental issues have also been eliminated or reduced since 1987.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): E.O. Stensholt, O.M. Dotterud, E.E. Henriksen, P.O. Ramsdal, F. StŒlesen, E. Thune
Keywords: Falconbridge, Kristiansand refinery, Chlorine leach process, Capacity increases, Operating improvements, Environmental improvements.
Issue: 1051
Volume: 94
Year: 2001
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Summary: The paper presents a study on the oxidation of polymetallic gold ore by oxygen in an autoclave. It presents optimum parameters of autoclave leaching of sulphide refractory ore in self-generated sulphuric acid solutions aiming to get products with favourable technological characteristics from which precious and other useful metals can be recovered. A high partial oxygen pressure (1.5 MPa to 2 MPa), high leaching temperature (190¡C to 200¡C), pulp density 80 g/L to 240 g/L, ore fraction size 76...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. Sinadinovic, R. Vracar, Z. Kamberovic
Keywords: Oxidation, Polymetallic gold, Oxygen, Leaching, Pulp density.
Issue: 1051
Volume: 94
Year: 2001
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Summary: Characterization of dust from Boliden Mineral ABÕs copper-plant in Sweden was carried out using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive analysis and wave length analysis using electron microprobe equipment. Dust from four different locations was characterized: the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) after the roasting furnace; the ESP after the copper smelting furnace; from the copper converter ventilation bag house filter; and from the bag house filter collecting dust...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. Samuelsson
Keywords: Characterization, Dust, Electrostatic precipitator (ESP), Smelter, Copper, Vaporization, Condensation.
Issue: 1051
Volume: 94
Year: 2001
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