A numerical description of the formation of a crater in rock blasting.
A newly developed damage model was used in the study of rock fragmentation mechanisms involved in crater blasting. Simulations show that at the detonation of the explosive charge, a crushed zone around the explosive charge is formed due to compressive failure and then a strong pressure wave is sent out forming a pressurized ring that propagates at the dilatation wave velocity. As the pressurized ring leaves the crushed zone, two tensile stress components perpendicular to the radial stress are developed in response to the action of the radial pressure, causing tensile failure and forming a damage zone around the charge. The formation of this damage zone is quite independent of the depth of the explosive charge provided there is no interference by the reflection from the free face. When the pressurized ring reaches the free face, it is reflected there and causes rock failure on the ground surface that forms another damage zone. Under the simulation conditions, it is revealed that the depth of charge is a factor controlling the relationship between the two damage zones. At a depth smaller than the
Blasting, Rock fragmentation mechanisms, Simulations.