A physical and chemical description of the Kivcet lead flash smelting process.
A brief history of the development of the Kivcet flash smelting process is presented. The broad scope of the process with an ability to treat high grade lead sulphide concentrates, as well as oxidized lead-zinc residues, is emphasized. Fine coal in the charge serves two purposes, one as auxiliary fuel and the other as a pre-reductant for ferric iron in residues. Current Kivcet operations incorporate a layer of coke or Òcoke checkerÓ at the surface of the slag in the reaction shaft that acts as a reducing agent for flame products or slag that flow through it. Details of this invention are given.