Inclusion measurement by ASTM E 1245

Abstract Over the past twenty years, steel makers have introduced improved practices for reducing the inclusion content of steels. The success of these practice changes can be monitored in a variety of ways. Chemical analysis of the bulk sulphur and oxygen contents provides a relatively simple means to assess the impact of these changes. However, microscopical test methods are still needed to assess the nature of the inclusions present. Traditional chart-based measuremnet methods have wide acceptability, and their data are well are understood by both purchaser and producer for heat acceptance purposes. However these methods do have inherent weaknessess which limit their usefulness for quality control, SPC, and database applications. Image analysis-based chart measurements are an improvement over manually generated chart ratings, but the data still do not lend themselves to databases and statistical comparisons, ASTM Committtee E-4 on Metallography has developed a stereologically-based image analysis standard test method, E1245, which provides the necessry data in a form which is easily databased and anal
Keywords: Metallurgy, Inclusion measurement, Steel
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Summary: Characterization of second phase particles is important with regard to their influence on mechanical properties of materials. Analytical electron microscopy offers the possibility to achieve complete characterization of inclusions. Complete characterization of inclusions means quantitative evaluation of their chemistry and the streological parameters. A characterization technique based on integrated microscopy and involving scanning electron microscopy, image analysis and energy dispersive...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.Blais, G. L'Esperance
Keywords: Metallurgy, Steel, Inclusions in steel
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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Summary: The functional role of inclusions at low cutting speeds is to promote ductile fracture in chip formation process, whereas the role of inclusions at high cutting speeds is to prevent tool crater wear by surpressing the tribological phenomenon of seizure at the tool-chip interface at high cutting speeds. The viscous layer lubricates the tool-chip interface to prevent the seizure. In comparison with the large volume fraction of inclusions needed for promoting ductile fracture at low cutting...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S.V. Subramanian, H.O. Gekonde, X.Zhang, J.Gao
Keywords: Metallurgy, Steel, Inclusion engineering, High speed machining
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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Summary: In western Canada, many new wells contain a significant fraction of H2S. As well, many older wells become increasingly sour over their operating lifetime. For these reasons, there has been increased demand for linepipe and casing for sour service applications in recent years. This paper will review the metallurgical factors which must be cosidered in designing steels for such applications. IPCOÕs development of linepipe and casing, and experience in fabricating products to meet test standards...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L.E. Collins, R. Kruger
Keywords: Metallurgy, Sour service applications, Steel
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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