Characterization of inclusions in steel: When not only size matters

Abstract Characterization of second phase particles is important with regard to their influence on mechanical properties of materials. Analytical electron microscopy offers the possibility to achieve complete characterization of inclusions. Complete characterization of inclusions means quantitative evaluation of their chemistry and the streological parameters. A characterization technique based on integrated microscopy and involving scanning electron microscopy, image analysis and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry is presented. A discussion of the use of transmission electron microscopy and electron enrgy loss spectroscopy is also presented for the characterization of very small particles and compounds. (>100nm).
Keywords: Metallurgy, Steel, Inclusions in steel
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Summary: The functional role of inclusions at low cutting speeds is to promote ductile fracture in chip formation process, whereas the role of inclusions at high cutting speeds is to prevent tool crater wear by surpressing the tribological phenomenon of seizure at the tool-chip interface at high cutting speeds. The viscous layer lubricates the tool-chip interface to prevent the seizure. In comparison with the large volume fraction of inclusions needed for promoting ductile fracture at low cutting...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S.V. Subramanian, H.O. Gekonde, X.Zhang, J.Gao
Keywords: Metallurgy, Steel, Inclusion engineering, High speed machining
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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Summary: In western Canada, many new wells contain a significant fraction of H2S. As well, many older wells become increasingly sour over their operating lifetime. For these reasons, there has been increased demand for linepipe and casing for sour service applications in recent years. This paper will review the metallurgical factors which must be cosidered in designing steels for such applications. IPCOÕs development of linepipe and casing, and experience in fabricating products to meet test standards...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L.E. Collins, R. Kruger
Keywords: Metallurgy, Sour service applications, Steel
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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Summary: Over the past twenty years, steel makers have introduced improved practices for reducing the inclusion content of steels. The success of these practice changes can be monitored in a variety of ways. Chemical analysis of the bulk sulphur and oxygen contents provides a relatively simple means to assess the impact of these changes. However, microscopical test methods are still needed to assess the nature of the inclusions present. Traditional chart-based measuremnet methods have wide acceptabili...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.F. Vander Voor
Keywords: Metallurgy, Inclusion measurement, Steel
Issue: 1021
Volume: 91
Year: 1998
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