A review of the first 25 years of mobile machine automation in underground hard rock mines
Recent advances in underground communications technology have demonstrated the feasibility of teleoperation and automation in underground metal mines. One major challenge lies in the automation of underground mobile machines from surface, with the potential to reduce significantly the need for human involvement in underground operations. This paper reviews the evolution of underground metal mining automation, principally related to the development of teleoperation and automation of mobile mining machines. Examples of prototype systems are given and the associated benefits that have been observed are reviewed.
Automation, Mining technology, Technology, Robotics, Underground mining,