Current Developments in Placer Gold Exploration in Ghana: Time and Financial Consideration

Abstract Ghana, a major West African gold-producing country, took a crucial step in 1986 to allow private participation in mining ventures that had hitherto been state controlled and starved of funds. This decision has led to a three-fold rise in gold production with substantial local and foreign capital once again ?owing into exploration and mining projects. Though the rise in gold export is due primarily to increased production from large mines such as Ashanti Gold?elds Corporation, Billiton Bogosu Gold, Tebrebie Gold?elds and Ghana Australia Gold that work primary lode gold deposits on quartz veins and Banket conglomerates, a fair amount of gold comes from placer gold mining from which two new mines have been developed at Kwabeng and Bonte during the current gold boom. Also, placer gold mining is important locally because the lower capital outlay required for its development enables many entrepreneurs to operate small concessions and provide employment for a large pool of unskilled labor. Placer gold exploration and development in Ghana is labor-intensive.
Pitting is the most used method although few employ the mechanized (“Banka”) drilling. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in the local setting are discussed. The gravel is normally sluiced and the gold recovered by amalgamation. The drawbacks to successful placer gold exploration in Ghana have been attributed to lapses in execution of exploration programs (DzigbodiAdjimah and Arhin, 1993; Dzigbodi-Adjimah and Gawu, 1994). However, the failure to recognize and set time frameworks and ?nancial limitations for the various stages of placer gold exploration have spelt the doom of some projects. It is critical that the characteristics of the placer gold deposit be determined by ef?cient and cost effective means. A planned exploration supported by adequate ?ow of funds saves costs and leads to success. This article discusses the current Ghanaian situation and presents proposals from case studies for planning and budgeting placer gold exploration programs for use in similar settings.
Keywords: Exploration, Gold exploration, Ghana, Gold mining, Financial limitations.
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Summary: Hundreds of diamonds have been found in the United States. The majority of the discoveries occurred during the 19th century as a by-product of placer gold mining. Most of these early diamond ?nds have no known source, and in many cases are situated in areas unfavorable for diamond exploration based on current models that require kimberlite or lamproite to be emplaced in a
stable Archean craton or Proterozoic craton margin.
Diamonds have also been recovered in situ from lamproite at Murfreesbu...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): W. DAN HAUSEL
Keywords: Metals, Diamonds, Kimberlites, Lamporites, United States.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The central part of the early Proterozoic Ketilidian orogen in South Greenland consists of an I-type granitoid batholith transected by four regional NE-SW-trending shear zones. The batholith was probably emplaced during subduction, from the south toward the Archaean craton in the north, in a sinistral transpressional system. A regional sediment sampling program covering 5000 km2 shows a close connection between a gold-mineralized trend and one of the major shear zones within the epizonal...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): H. STENDAL, L. GRAHL-MADSEN, H.K. OLSEN
Keywords: Exploration, Gold exploration, Proterozoic, Greenland, Batholith, Sampling.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Plants have a remarkable ability to select, use and store metals derived from the substrate. Each species is unique in its requirements for and tolerances to the full spectrum of chemical elements in the Periodic Table. Studies to de?ne the chemical characteristics of common trees and shrubs of the temperate forest are providing insight to their use for exploration, i.e., biogeochemical exploration. Examples of surveys over gold deposits in British Columbia show the effectiveness of sampling...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): COLIN E. DUNN
Keywords: Exploration, Mineral exploration, Temperate Forests, Plants, Biogeochemical exploration
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: It has long been recognized that platinum-group-element (PGE) deposits in layered intrusions preferentially occur in intrusions that crystallized from high-Mg parent magmas. Recent studies suggest that evaluation of any given intrusion for economic PGE potential should also include assessment of the PGE, sulfur and chlorine concentrations in the cumulates and potential parent liquids. PGE: Magmas that contain relatively abundant Pt and Pd are the best candidates for forming economic deposits....
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): A.E. BOUDREAU
Keywords: Geochemistry, Exploration, Platinum-group-element exploration, PGE, Magma,
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Detailed oxygen isotope mapping of rhyolites in and around the Kidd Creek mine indicates that the orebodies are associated with relatively low (<12‰) whole rock values that extend up to 200 m laterally from ore. The zone of low d 18 O values is overlain stratigraphically by a carapace
of higher (>13‰) values that extends up to 1.5 km laterally from and 300 m to 500 m above ore.
Immediately above the stratigraphically highest orebody this carapace is cut by a zone of lower d 18 O values...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): DAVID L. HUSTON, WOUTER BLEEKER, BRUCE E. TAYLOR
Keywords: Kidd Creek Mine, Isotope mapping, Exploration, Geochemistry, Stratisgraphy, Oxygen isotope
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The utility of high-density stream sediment and stream water sampling to the exploration for silver deposits was investigated by the study of the epithermal Ag-Au base-metal prospect at Lagalochan in western Scotland. The geology of Lagalochan is dominated by a calc-alkaline Caledonian intrusive complex emplaced into Dalradian Supergroup rocks (Harris et al., 1988a). The complex consists of subvolcanic porphyrytic rocks associated with intense hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Early...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): D.A. POLYA, R.A.D. PATTRICK, D.J. MARSH, J.-J. BAO
Keywords: Silver dispersion, Base metal dispersion, Stream sediments, Stream water sampling, Mineralization.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The schist-, sediment-, and intrusion-hosted Tertiary Au-Ag hydrothermal deposits of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota are localized and controlled by various types of fractures. This study is an attempt to distinguish between and discuss the possible causes of these fractures in three mines: Richmond Hill, Annie Creek – Foley Ridge (ACFR), and Gilt Edge. Five models based on the structural and tectonic settings of the northern Black Hills are proposed for the fracture origin. In...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): MUSTAFA M. HARIRI, ALVIS L. LISENBEE, COLIN J. PATERSON
Keywords: Fracture control, Hydrothermal deposits.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
Web Page
Summary: <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML><HEAD>
<META content="text/html; charset=unicode" http-equiv=Content-Type>
<META name=GENERATOR content="MSHTML 9.00.8112.16443"></HEAD>
<BODY>A variety of techniques for interpreting systems of mineralized echelon
veins is discussed using examples from Panasqueira and SW England. As aids for
exploration and mine planning, and as a tool for ore reserve evaluation,
particular emphasis is placed upon establishing vein...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): K.A. FOXFORD
Keywords: Modelling Systems,Mineralized echelon veins, Vein systems, Vein dialation
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: Geochemical background levels have been established for unmineralized sedimentary rocks that are elsewhere the hosts of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Getchell Trend. The Paleozoic rocks in the Winnemucca Quadrangle consist predominantly of the lower Paleozoic siliceous and clastic sequences that were carried eastward along the Roberts Mountains thrust during the Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Antler Orogeny and the late Paleozoic Havallah and Pumpernickel sequences brought along the...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): L.C. HSU, H.F. BONHAM JR., J.G. PRICE, L.J. GARSIDE, M.O. DESILETS, P.J. LECHLER
Keywords: Geochemistry, Sedimentary rocks, Gold, Gold exploration.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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Summary: The Amalgamated Kirkland gold deposit is located at Kirkland Lake, Ontario, within the Archean Abitibi Greenstone belt of the Canadian Shield. It lies on a fault or “break”, termed the Cyprus Break, which is a splay off a regional structure termed the Cyprus-Battle Mountain Break. The Cyprus Break merges with the Cyprus – Battle Mountain Break above the -250 m level, as it was not encountered in shallow drilling or surface exploration. These structures lie 1.5 km south of the 727 000 kg (23...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): DAVID B. STEVENSON, DAVID W. BROUGHTON, DOUGLAS R. CRUJI, MARK W. MASSON, STEVEN E. PARRY
Keywords: Geology, Exploration, Amalgamated Kirkland Deposit, Kirkland Lake, Drilling, Sedimentary rocks, Mineralization.
Issue: 3
Volume: 4
Year: 1995
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