Geological control over blast fragmentation

Abstract Blast fragmentation is affected by the physical and mechanical characteristics of the rockmass as determined by geology as well as the explosive energy, the partition of this energy, the actual amount of energy transmitted to the rockmass, the blast geometry and the detonation sequence. This paper reviews studies of the influence of geology on blast fragmentation, particularly structure, i.e. the in situ or inherent fragmentation arising from rock discontinuities. Prior structural studies have mainly been limited to comparing equivalent diameters of the in situ blocks with the size distributions of the blasted material. No criteria exist to integrate structure into blast design. This paper reviews on-going studies of the blasted fragment shape and size observed in different rock masses aimed at analyzing geological control over blasting. Digital photoanalysis was applied to measure size and shape distributions, to correlate results with block size distributions and shape parameters of the inherent fragmentation. An integrated and comprehensive fragmentation assessment procedure which accounts for geological control is proposed. The potential of this research is to provide a greater understanding of the true contribution of explosives to fragmentation, the effects of fragment shape on system productivity and the reduction of blast-induced damage.
Keywords: Blast fragmentation, Fragmentation, Geological controls.
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L.D. Smith
Keywords: Mineral economics, Economic evaluations.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Wouter Bleeker, Isabelle Cadieux
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: The Cominco smeller in Trail, British Columbia, is a large integrated lead-zinc production facility. In the plant description, emphasis is given to the pyrometallurgical operations including zinc concentrate roasting, lead sinter-blast furnace processing and silver refining. Production figures for the main metal products - zinc, lead, silver and gold - are provided.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.W. Toop
Keywords: Metallurgy, Pyrometallurgy, Smelters, Cominco.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: For the assessment of any new mining project it is essential to determine a realistic value of revenue from the sale of concentrates. A description of the market factors influencing the concentrate terms will be presented along with a detailed review nf historical terms of a smelter contract for zinc concentrates.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H.M. Hamilton, E.M. Yates
Keywords: Mineral economics, Market forecasting, Zinc metal market, Smelter contracts.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
Text
Summary: To compete in the ever expanding global market, companies must continuously improve. Benchmarking, a tool that can help determine where the best areas for improvement are, is more than comparing measures, it is comparing how business is carried out and how decisions are made. The key to success is in integrating benchmarking results into the organization, so that those most affected by the results own them and are empowered to use them as a positive change agent. This is a necessary step to...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): W. Almdal
Keywords: Benchmarking, Human resources, Management.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: The nature and distribution of the inorganic components and the concentration of certain environmentally sensitive elements, such as, As, Sb, B, Hr, Cd, CI, F, Mo, Pb, S, and Se, or elements detrimental to the utilization by industry such as B, Na, P and S are very important in determining coal quality. The concentration of elements in coal is controlled by the following factors: (1) frequency of occurrence of partings; (2) nature and habit of occurrence of minerals in coal; (3) environment...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): F. Goodarzi
Keywords: Coal mining, Environmental control.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: With some justification, people have long complained about the indefinition of ore reserves. Perhaps they were led to expect too much; from former and easier definition practices in the once common underground mines with exposed and available assets, where the obsolete term 'ore in sight' was at least partly literal. But such mines have become rarer, and their underground development less affordable. For most projects, valuations and its definitions have thus been advanced from actual to...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Hugh K. Taylor
Keywords: Ore reserves, Mining economics, Estimation, Ore reserve definition.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: Canada has a per capita GDP second only to Japan among the G7 countries and a positive trade balance which ranks third among the world's major economies. International trade represents a very large part of the national economy and as a proportion of GDP is larger than that of all the other G7 countries with the exception of Germany. On the negative side the Canadian current account deficit relative to the size of the economy is significantly worse than that of all major industrial countries,...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.A. Horn, S.M. Telfer
Keywords: Canada trade balance, Tade balance, Environmental concerns, Mineral economics, Mineral exploration, Mining in Canada.
Issue: 983
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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