Control of secondary emissions in pyrometallurgical smelters

Abstract
Existing environmental, heoJth and safety regulations have forced pyrometallurgical facilities worldwide to drastically change some of their traditional methods ofoperation. In extreme cases, a number offacilities have been closed due to their inability to conform to these existing regulations. Tougher future legislation and government policy will lead to more stringent regulations and enforcement policies. The efficient control of smelter secondary emissions will, therefore, become critical to successful smelter operation. Much attention has been paid to the smelter primary process off-gas systems, including the development of new process designs to reduce the number ofuncontrolled transfer operations. However, even the most modem smelter design requires control ofits secondary contaminant sources, which mayor may not be directly related to the process operation. This paper discusses some ofthe potential secondary emissions encountered in many of the present process technologies. A few of the emission sources presented are only periodic in nature, such as those caused by maintenance procedures, but which have the capability offorcing smelter shut-down because of their direct impact on worker health and safety. The paper deals with a variety of topics relating to the effICient control, maintenance and monitoring of secondary emissions in copper, nickel, aluminum, magnesium and lead smelters, as well as in iron foundries and steel making facilities. Examples ofthe typical problems encountered in each of the above process operations are presented, including fume control at furnace tapping and slagging locations, metal transfer stations,tapping launders, and ladle transfer operations. The parameters for the most efficient design offume capture systems, problems encountered with the handling and clean-up of certain collected emissions, and examples ofsuccessful solutions in particular operations are discussed.
Keywords: Health and safety, Smelter emissions, Secondary emissions,Emissions.
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Summary: Since J978, Falconbridge Limited has operated two electric furnaces at its nickel-copper smelter in Sudbury. As part of its S02 Abatement Program, the smelter has wu:iergone many changes over the last seven years. This paper describes the impact ofthese changes on the operation of the furnaces. Some ofthe topics to be covered include: the installation ofsidewall copper coolers; current operating conditions; and furnace heat and mass balances.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): N. Stubina, J. Chao, C. Tan
Keywords: Smeher operations, Falconbridge Limited, Copper coolers,Furnace heat, Mass balance.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: An overview of the status of the development and application of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation is presented. Current projects in North America, Europe and Japan are described, together with the status of plans to apply the technology in Canada. A brief review of the technology is presented, including promising coproduction cycles and hybrid gasification-pressurized fluid bed processes. The ability of the process to be modified for CO2 to be extracted for...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): K.M. Tait
Keywords: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Power generation, Technology.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: Roast-reduction smelting (RRS) of nickel concentrate, combined with flash smelting of copper concentrate, was one of the process options that Inco considered as a means of meeting its
1994 sulphur dioxide abatement target at its Copper Cliff operations. RRS involves deep roasting the nickel concentrate in fluid bed roasters. The roaster off-gas is treated in a sulphuric acid plant, and the low sulphur calcine is reduction smelted with coke in an electric furnace to yield a sulphur-de}lCient...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. Diaz, B.R. Conard, C.E. O'Neill, A.D. Dalvi
Keywords: Metallurgy, Roast-reduction smelting, Nickel concentrate.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: This paper discusses the application ofLoad-Haul-Dump (LHD) machine teleoperation in combination with a guidance system for single operator control ofmultiple IJIDs. A system accomplishingthese goals has been tested at Copper Cliff North Mine of Inco Limited. This  development uses a high-speed, high-capacity production network to teleoperate an LHD during loading and dumping by using 3D video and radio remote control. Following loading, the operator dispatches the LHD using an automatic...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.R. Baiden
Keywords: Automation, Robotics, Vehicle guidance, Inco Limited,
Teleoperation.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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Summary: This paper presents a discussion of the mechanisms by which aerosols of the process electrolyte are entrained into the breathing environment ofcopper, zinc and nickel eIectrowinning tankhouses. Literature outlining the health effects associated with worker exposure to the acidic and metallic contaminants found in the airbome aerosols is summarized and compared with existing North American regulations. A briefreview ofthe existing technologies for the source reduction Of these aerosols is...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.A. Davis, W.R. Hopkins
Keywords: Metallurgy, Electrometallurgy, Environmental controls, Health and safety, Ventilation systems, Tankhouses.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
Text
Summary: Deep roasting in fluid bed roasters is the first unit operation in Inco's "roast-reduction smelting" process for the treatment of nickel sulphide concentrates. The roaster product, a low sulphur calcine, is reduction smelted with coke in an electric furnace to yield a sulphur-deficient matte which is then converted to low (1%) iron matte in Peirce-Smith converters. Due to the deep roasting, a minimal amount of sulphur dioxide is evolved in the smelting and converting stages. Sulphur...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. Diaz, B.R. Conard, S.W. Marcuson, K.I. Burgess
Keywords: Metallurgy, Nickel concentrate, Roasters, Fluid bed roasters.
Issue: 981
Volume: 87
Year: 1994
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