Design of refractories and bindings for modern high-productivity pyrometallurgical furnaces

CIM Bulletin, Vol. 86, No. 971, 1993
R.C. Francki, K.M. Donaldson, F.E. Ham and J.G. Schofield Hatch Associates Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario
Abstract Developments in pyrometallurgical technology have led to larger furnaces operating under more intense process conditions. In order to maintain the reliability of these furnaces, which are frequently single-line units, the design of the refractories, cooling systems and bindings has become more critical. Traditional thermal and chemical requirements for the refractory to resist slag attack must still be carefully determined. The larger, modern furnaces have placed a new emphasis on the structural properties of the refractories as well as their thermal properties to suit the extensive cooling systems. Based on operating experience, supported by computer models, the refractories and bindings are designed to work together to accommodate the thermal expansions and contractions in order to minimize permanent furnace growth and the risks of leaks.
Keywords: Non-ferrous pyrometallurgy, Refractories, Electric furnaces, Bindings, Hearth thermal resistance, Refractory design, Slag attack.
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