Intelligent P&IDs, their creation and use in process hazard analysis of refineries and chemical plants

Abstract Canadian process industry experts have often observed the strong trend for U.S. industrial safety and environmental laws to creep across the border. These experts will be interested in new United States (OSHA) regulations (29 CFR 1910.119), and anticipated new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that will require over 28 000 U.S. refineries and chemical plants employing more than three million workers, to begin a comprehensive Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) of these complex plants immediately. Impending EPA regulations are expected to expand these efforts and add process Hazard Frequency and process Hazard Consequence reviews for many additional industrial locations.
These regulations were created to reduce catastrophic industrial accidents, and emergency releases of hazardous chemicals which endanger employees, the public, and the environment. Accurate, and field verified Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) are essential to permit a meaningful Process Hazard Analysis or emission release to be done. Today accurate P&IDs often do not exist. Many companies that have started to update their old P&IDs have found the process to be far more difficult, time-consuming, and expensive than they ever thought.
This paper describes a new technique of computer drawn "Intelligent" P&IDs that can make a Process Hazard Analysis less expensive, more accurate, easier to perform, and provides lasting benefits to the plant owner long after the PHA has been completed.
Keywords: Hazard analysis, Computer applications, Piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs).
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Summary: Greater reliability of mineral deposit and reserve estimates can be attained through better quality control of the data and information acquisition, and the estimation processes. This paper reviews the following key requirements:1. greater awareness of the significant figures of both data and estimates, and better understanding of the probabilistic aspects of the estimates, their confidence limits and margins of error;2. greater reliability of the information that supports the estimates, by...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Marcel Vallee, Denis Cote
Keywords: Geostatistics, Mineral deposits, Reserve estimates, Geological appraisal, Quality control.
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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Summary: This paper summarizes findings of a two-month investigation in Zambia and Zimbabwe and a one-month visit to Britain in 1990-1991. United States contacts have supplied information about that country.
Zambia's political unrest and severe devaluation, combined with developments in Namibia and South Africa, enhanced staff recruiting problems in the School of Mines. Zimbabwe has a strong and developing mining department. The departments of mining in the United States and Great Britain are...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): A.E. Hall
Keywords: Education, Mining engineers, Training.
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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Summary: A computer-assisted process control system for the Noranda Process Reactor was installed at the Home smelter in 1991. Operating as an advisory tool for the furnace operators, and using a flexible oxygen balance as the basic building block of the computer program, the new control system has helped to reduce the variability in the grade of the matte produced by 50%. The smelter is currently operating at a 72% copper matte, with a standard deviation of between 1.0 and 1.3, while treating a wide...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. Verhelst, Y. Prevost
Keywords: Noranda Process, Smelters, Computer applications, Metallurgical processes, Reactors, Process control.
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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Summary: Managing safety on the basis of after-the-fact reaction to accidents, can never be more than partially successful. Injuries will occur as long as the underlying potential for them still exists. Unless unsafe actions and conditions are systematically decreased, no program can have more than a short-term success.
The pro-active Bullmoose loss control process, instead, focusses on heightening awareness of work habits, to prevent incidents by reducing their potential. Any safety program will be...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): B.R. Casement
Keywords: Safety, Open pit mining.
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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Summary: Effective and timely communication during routine operations, and especially during emergency situations, is no easy task in any underground mine. At Cominco Fertilizers, Potash Operations, where 150 people are employed underground to produce 3.1 million tonnes of potash per annum at a depth of 1100 m (3600ft), this is no exception. The over-all mine workings underlie an area of approximately 20 km2 with average travel time to the active mining areas being approximately 30 to 40 minutes by...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S.L. Gula
Keywords: Underground mining systems, FED communication systems, Communications, Safety.
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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Summary: Respirable dust samples are collected by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and mine operators as part of the requirements of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. About 1.85 million respirable dust samples collected by MSHA were analyzed for the period 1971 to 1990 for the states of Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. Trends in coal dust exposure of continuous miner operators, helpers, and roof...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. Xu
Keywords: Coal mining, Health, Safety, Respirable dust, Dust control, Statistical analyses, U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
Issue: 969
Volume: 86
Year: 1993
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