Contrasting Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulfide Styles hi the Tulks Belt, Central Newfoundland

Abstract The prospective Tulks volcanic belt hosts five significant massive sulfide deposits, Tulks Prospect, Tulks East, Jack's Pond, Daniel's Pond and Victoria Mine, as well as numerous showings and indications throughout its 70 km outcrop length. Regionally, the 498 Ma sequence consists dominantly of felsic pyroclastic rocks and flows with interbedded mafic volcanic units and finegrained sediments, commonly graphitic. Contemporaneous granitoid rocks occur in the south half of the belt. Rocks usually display a strong NE-SW, steeply dipping, penetrative foliation and other shear-related high-strain fabrics. Facing directions are normally northwest, although there is local evidence of folding. Sulfide bodies and their alteration systems are deformed and shape-modified in the style of ambient strain.
The Tulks, Tulks East and Jack's Pond prospects appear to occupy a similar stratigraphic level, on or near the contact between a thick felsic pile and an overlying broad, conductive package of graphitic sedimentary rocks. All are pyritic deposits with well-developed footwall alteration systems. The Tulks prospect comprises four polymetallic lenses totalling 750 0001. Three lenses constituting more than 6 000 000 t of sulfide mineralization are indicated at Tulks East but only the 210 000 t "B" lens contains significant base metals. Jack's Pond consists of a very extensive, zoned alteration complex in which four lenses of massive to semi-massive pyrite + chalcopyrite are known. The central part of the system, characterized by Mg chlorite and carbonate, is enveloped by pervasive serialization and capped by intensely silicified and pyritized volcanics. The sulfide lenses are interpreted as part of the footwall zone and are beneath that part of the system most likely to host polymetallic massive sulfides.
Daniel's Pond differs from the other prospects in such fundamental ways as metal content, associated alteration and structural setting. The deposit comprises strongly tectonized, Ag-rich, Zn-Pb mineralization distinguished by a pronounced Ba-As-Sb signature. Mineralization is confined to a narrow, north-south high-strain zone which separates unstrained mafic volcanic rocks to the east from well-foliated felsic rocks. The deposit lacks an extensive alteration halo and at its north end is associated with a lens of barren, undeformed massive pyrite.
The Victoria Mine deposit, the most cupriferous of the five, is related to a moderately clipping structure that separates well-foliated Tulks volcanic rocks from an overlying, less deformed volcanic-sedimentary sequence that may be as young as 462 Ma. The structure is also the locus of black chlorite, dolomite and quartz alteration. Structurally remobilized precursor sulfide mineralization is one possible source for the deposit.
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Summary: Regional and orientation geochemical stream sediment surveys were carried out by the Quebec Department of Energy and Resources in southwestern Quebec, over a part of the Mont-Laurier Terrane of the Grenville Province. The area contains some small stratiform zinc deposits. The response of Zn mineralization to geochemical surveys is weak; the known mineralization is not defined by anomalous samples and consistent patterns. This study uses a technique that increases the geochemical signature of...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): CLAUDE BELLEHUMEUR, MICHEL JEBRAK
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: The Corbet deposit is one of 17 proximal Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits located within the Noranda Cauldron which occurs within the core of the Noranda Volcanic Complex. The deposit is located at the top of the Flavrian Formation, the lowermost formation of the 3000 m thick Mine Sequence; the deposit has yielded 2.75 M tonnes of ore grading 3% Cu, 0.96% Zn, 2.06 g/t Ag and 1.0 g/t Au. The multi-lens Corbet deposit formed within a 250 m wide crater that occurs within a localized breccia pile....
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): H.L. GIBSON, D.H. WATKINSON
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: Electromagnetic surveys were conducted over the Yava sandstone-hosted lead deposit in Nova Scotia to evaluate the usefulness of such surveys for detecting and mapping sedimentary-hosted metallic ore deposits. Both transient and multifrequency systems were used for that purpose. The deposit consists of three zones of disseminated galena which also contain minor amounts of pyrite and sphalerite filling the interstices of the sandstone grains. Each zone overlies a basement depression and is...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): AJIT K. SINHA
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: The process of arriving at the size and grade of: (a) a newly-discovered body of mineralization, (b) a potential ore resource, (c) an orebody proposed for mining, or (d) the ore reserves in a mine, requires fundamental geological, and geometrical determinations as well as physical and chemical analyses. This paper outlines geological and geometrical features considered critical, in the authors' experience, in realistic reserve determination. These are discussed under the headings "The Four...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): OWEN OWENS, W.P. ARMSTRONG
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: The Jasper Gold mine in northern Saskatchewan produced a total mill feed of 140 127 tonnes at an average grade of 19.0 g/t Au. Both diamond drilling and chip samples from underground workings returned extremely high values, up to 12 851 g/t (375 oz/T) Au over 0.10 meter from a chip sample. In the presence of such extremely high grades, the accurate estimation of reserves is a major problem.
In the first part of this study, production data from the mine were used to evaluate the results of a...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): CHRIS M. HEALEY
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: Yidun Island Arc in Sanjiang Region is one of the important Kuroko-type volcano-genie massive sulfide deposits (VMS) districts in southwestern China. Tectonically, the region is situated in the eastern portion of the Tethys orogenic belt, and is a late Triassic extensional island-arc. The island-arc underwent earlier arc construction, intra-arc rifting, later arc construction and back-arc spreading during its evolution and formed a complete trench-arc-basin system, i.e., the Ganzi-Litang...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): ZENGQIAN HOU
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: The East Bull Lake gabbro-anorthosite intrusion is one of several Early Proterozoic layered mafic intrusions occurring along the Southern Province - Superior Province boundary in the Elliot Lake - Sudbury region, Ontario. The base of the East Bull Lake intrusion comprises abundant plagioclase cumulates (Leucogabbronorite Zone) hosting two distinct styles of sulfide mineralization: (1) disseminated magmatic sulfides, and (2) disseminated to massive, structurally controlled sulfides. Both types...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): D.C. PECK, R.S. JAMES, P.T. CHUBB
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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Summary: The Laochang mine, located in the Sanjiang area of southwestern Yunnan Province of China, is a volcanogenic massive Pb-Zn-Cu sulfide deposit. It is hosted by a pyroclastic sequence of Early Carboniferous age, namely the lower member of the Yiliu Group, which was intruded by syenite and rhyolite porphyry. The volcanic suite is basaltic or basaltic-andesitic in composition, has alkaline affinities, and is associated with the initial rifting along the margin of the Baoshan-Shanstate continental...
Publication: Exploration & Mining Geology
Author(s): KAIHUI YANG, XUANXUE MO
Issue: 1
Volume: 2
Year: 1993
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