Coal mining in Canada in the nineties

Abstract Mathematically, the proposed formula is: "Human Effectiveness + Technological Improvement = Success in the Nineties".
A brief review is made of geology, level of technology, management and labour situations, and range of production costs in coal producing countries. This comparison shows keen competition for Canadian coals, especially from the People's Republic of China, South Africa and Australia. Domestic competition comes from nuclear energy, hydro-electric generation, natural gas (if permitted) and eastern United States coal.
The huge increase in the size and power of surface mining equipment in the last forty years led to modern large-scale open pit mining. While conventional truck and shovel operations will continue to be widely used, more continuous mining and conveying systems will be installed as pits become deeper and haul distances longer. Computer systems will become more sophisticated and their applications more widespread, leading to higher productivity and closer control of all operations and equipment performances and to partial or complete automation of certain operations.
The underground revival will be driven by a new generation of mining people, cooperating to produce over 3 million t/y from 300 m longwall faces retreating over 3 km resulting in mine productivities of over 40 tonnes per man shift, as is already achieved in several mines throughout the world. Continuous operation using on-line control systems will assist in consistent production with availabilities over 75%.
Keywords: Coal mining, Production costs, Lignite, Sub-bituminous coal, Productivity comparisons.
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Summary: Pilot plant testwork on autogenous and semi-autogenous grinding was conducted at the Centre des Recherches Minerales du Quebec (CRM) to investigate the effect of ball addition, solids concentration in the feed, specific energy consumption and feed size distribution.
A mathematical model that incorporates breakage and surface mechanisms of loss of mass was developed to predict load size distribution of autogenous and semi-autogeneous mills. An empirical model was used to predict product size...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Mary Goldman
Keywords: Autogenous grinding, Semi-autogenous grinding, Abrasion, Breakage, Modelling.
Issue: 946
Volume: 84
Year: 1991
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Summary: The pendulum in Ottawa has swung dramatically from fiscal policy to monetary policy over the last several years. International trends indicate that the pendulum has to start its swing the other way, if Canada's mining industry is to maintain its preeminent position in the global mining arena. This article, which is based on a paper presented by the author at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Newfoundland Branch of CIM, identifies these trends and how they could interact with Canadian policy.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Robert B. Parsons
Issue: 946
Volume: 84
Year: 1991
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Summary: It is well known that the classification system of volcanogenic massive sulphides (VMS) is based upon their metal content. This metal content, the result of hydrothermal solutions circulating within strata underlying the deposits, is generally thought to be related directly to two parameters: (1) the nature of the underlying stratigraphic sequence; and (2) the physico-chemical conditions that existed at the time of the hydrothermal event. Furthermore, these two parameters are, in turn,...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Jacques Trottier, Michel Gauthier
Keywords: Exploration, Base Metal deposits, Eastern Townships.
Issue: 946
Volume: 84
Year: 1991
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Summary: A mineralogical and trace element analysis was performed on the Kiire historical slags in order to evaluate the possible recovery of copper and cobalt. Reflected light microscopy, electron microprobe and image analysis were combined to determine the Cu and Co distribution in the slag.
The results indicate that 81% of the total cobalt is chemically combined in thefayalite whereas only 3.4% is in the mechanically entrapped sulphides. The remainder being in hercynite and wustite. On the other...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Eric Pirard
Keywords: Applied mineralogy, Cobalt, Slag, Image analysis.
Issue: 946
Volume: 84
Year: 1991
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Summary: sulphide (VMS) deposits. Geochemical, isotopic and geochronological studies show that the vestiges of lapetus in Newfoundland probably record a complex series of island arcs and back-arc basins that were marginal to, rather than part of, the main ocean basin of lapetus. The geochemical and isotopic data provide a means of characterizing the tectonic environment of individual volcanic sequences, and allow us to identify a number of distinct tectonic environments in which VMS deposition took...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H. Scott Swinden
Keywords: Exploration, Volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits, Mineral deposits, Dunnage Zone, Newfoundland Appalachians.
Issue: 946
Volume: 84
Year: 1991
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