Practical rock engineering in the optimization of stope dimensions — application and cost effectiveness

Abstract The mine operator has two prime objectives when he operates a mine: (1) the mine must be safe, and (2) the mine must operate with the lowest possible costs. The operator constantly faces a dilemma; if he is over cautious with regard to safety, his costs may be very high, and if he is over-zealous in trying to reduce costs, the safety of his operation may be jeopardized.
Modern bulk mining methods rely heavily on high productivity non-entry sloping techniques (e.g. open sloping, VCR, etc.). Such techniques have the advantage of removing the operator from the active and sometimes dangerous mining face and of minimizing costly development. On the other hand, this generally results in a certain loss of flexibility in following irregular ore—waste contacts. If slopes are opened too large and/or are inadequately supported, severe dilution with resulting escalating costs usually results. If initial access drift support is inadequate for latter mine induced stresses high rehabilitation costs may also be incurred.
Optimization of stope dimensions should logically occur as part of a general mine rock engineering program, within the over-all mine planning context. The same program should help highlight those areas where drift rehabilitation may be a problem.
Whenever successful mining is performed, rock engineering is being applied, either by design or by chance. The cost implications of planned practical rock engineering as an integral part of mine planning and design can be very significant to the ultimate mining "bottom line".
At Noranda Minerals Inc. allowable stope dimensions are derived using a combination of numerical stress analysis and empirical design techniques. This paper discusses the use of the above techniques and their limitations as tools for rock mechanics based stope dimension optimization. The potential cost implications of such design efforts within the general mine planning context are also addressed.
Keywords: Rock mechanics, Cost effective mining, Empirical design techniques, Underground mining Mine design, Support systems, Safety.
Full Access to Technical Paper
PDF version for $20.00
Search
Sort By:  Relevance
Showing results 1 - 6
Text
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): MacKenzie Dickson
Keywords: Gold recovery, Dewatering, Screening, Carbon dewatering.
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Text
Summary: Prior or simultaneous addition of ammonium sulphate can, not only enhance the activating effect of hydrosulphide ions on xanthate flotation of malachite but it can also eliminate possible detrimental or depressing effects of excess residual hydrosulphide. Use of relatively inexpensive ammonium sulphate appears to reduce the consumption of the much more expensive sulphidizing agent for optimal flotation recovery.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Wenbin Zhang
Keywords: Mineral processing, Xanthate flotation, Malachite, Sulphidized xanthate flotation, Flotation processes, Ore recovery.
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Text
Summary: The mineralogical studies done on Hope Brook ore samples indicated that a heap leach gold recovery process may be possible. In the metallurgical program that followed, column tests confirmed this interpretation. A 9300 tonne demonstration heap leach test, in the late fall of 1985, reaffirmed laboratory results while identifying operating conditions that will have to be addressed in a production heap leach plan. Operating plans, gold recoveries and cost areas will be presented.
Another...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.W. McDonald
Keywords: Metallurgy, Mineral processing, Gold recovery, Mineral extraction.
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Text
Summary: Once all the hullabaloo about Finance Minister Wilson's April 27 budget died down (or was it an April 26 budget?), the pain of the budget papers began to sink in. Individuals and corporations will have to dig deeper and pay more taxes — and government will continue to dig deeper and spend more. The irony of the situation is that higher tax rates actually make flow-through shares more attractive as a tax-deferral investment — a bittersweet "bravo" for the mining industry.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Robert B. Parsons
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Text
Summary: Stillwater Mining Company (SMC), a partnership of Chevron Resources and Manville Corporation, produces a copper-nickel, platinum-palladium flotation concentrate at its Nye, Montana mine. The concentrate is then toll processed in Europe. Recognizing the economic advantage of treating the concentrates at the mine site and of retaining this strategic resource in the United States, the Company commissioned Tolltreck International Limited and International Process Research Corporation to conduct...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J. W. Matousek, P.J. Marcantonio, R.J. Phillips, J.G. Whellock
Keywords: Pyrometallurgy, Ore Recovery, Smelting tests, Pilot plant smelting.
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Text
Summary: A multielement (Au, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Ag, As, Hg, Co, and S) geochemical rock sampling survey was carried out in 1977 in the Munro Township area of Ontario to assess the application of rock geochemistry for gold exploration in the region. Detailed sampling with analysis for gold and arsenic was done in 1986 in the immediate vicinity of the Croesus Mine.
Samples of quartz veins and rock formations were taken in regional traverses and in more detail near old showings, prospect pits, and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.R. Webber, P.J. Whittaker
Keywords: Geochemistry, Gold, Exploration, Geology.
Issue: 926
Volume: 82
Year: 1989
Powered by Coveo Enterprise Search