Industrial restructuring and changing world metallurgical coal trade patterns

Abstract Major industrial restructuring, which started to manifest itself in the mature economies of the Western World and Japan in the 1970s, will accelerate in the 1980s and 1990s. Conventional heavy manufacturing industries will continue to lose ground to lighter processing/assembly operations and the new wave of high technology, information and service sectors. The decline in heavy manufacturing has severely impacted on the steel industries of Western Europe, the U.S.A. and Japan.
World trade in metallurgical coal has shifted correspondingly, with declining demand in the mature developed countries being only partially offset by large increases in the steel intensity of the newly-industrialized countries (NICs) of the Far East, Latin America and, to a more limited extent, the Middle East and Africa. These trends will be accentuated in future years with direct implications for the distribution of metallurgical coal trade. This paper discusses, in quantitative terms, such changes in the 1980s and 1990s, and examines the implications for, and impacts on, Canadian metallurgical coal exporters.
Keywords: Coal, Marketing, Metallurgical coal, World trade, Economics, Coal production
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Summary: A mathematical procedure for determining the underground mining level layout which minimizes the total costs of excavation and haulage is described. This procedure has the advantage over previous graphical procedures of being easily amenable to microcomputers. The paper demonstrates through examples how the procedure can be applied to minimizing discounted costs of level layout as well as providing the optimal location of a production shaft.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): YVES LIZOTTE, JORGEN ELBROND
Keywords: Underground mining, Mine layout, Optimization, Discounted costs, Microcomputers, Computer applications.
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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Summary: A study recently completed by the Prospectors and Developers Association, assisted by the author and computerized mine models he developed, presents a strong case that present tax rules severely handicap the junior exploration company relative to the established producer. This month, Tax Notes briefly summarizes the highlights of the study and some of the Association's ideas which came out of the study.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ROBERT B. PARSONS
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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Summary: A process of leaching niobium oxide from pyrochlore concentrate using hydrofluoric acid is described. Variables such as acid concentration, temperature, reaction time, solid/acid ratio, agitation speed and particle size are correlated to the recovery of niobium oxide.
The relatively low activation energy (1,86 Kcal/mole) and the dependence of reaction rate on agitation suggest that the process is diffusion controlled. The optimum conditions for extracting niobium oxide from the leach...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G. GABRA
Keywords: Extractive metallurgy, Solvent extraction, Leaching, Niobium, Tantalum, Pyrochlore concentrate.
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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Summary: The carbonatite massif of Sokli includes several low-grade Nb showings composed of ores and wastes as identified by routine analyses. More detailed lithologic proportions were determined in two orebodies in the Kaulusrova Nb-mineralized area by a careful geological study and by thorium radiation measurement on 10 cm-long drill core cuttings with a total length of 460 metres. The distribution of Nb in eight X-ray spectro-metrically analyzed drill core sample intervals (totalling 35.8 m) was...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H. VARTIAINEN, H. PAARMA
Keywords: Niobium, X-MET analyzer, Spectrometers, Drill cores.
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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Summary: La Mine Bousquet commenced operations in October 1979. Mining has been by underground methods from two main zones which dip steeply to the south. Sub-level sloping methods with following fill are used.
The orebody and immediate country rocks are sericitic and highly schistose. The intensity of schistosity varies significantly and poor ground conditions prevail, especially within the orebody.
Initially few mining problems were encountered but in May 1981, significant damage occurred. A system...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): JOHN F. COOK, BENNETT McLAUGHLIN, GILLES BROUSSEAU
Keywords: Underground mining, La Mine Bousquet, Mucking, Drilling, Blasting, Rock bolting, Ground movement.
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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Summary: In June 1983 a new borehole hoisting system was commissioned at Sherritt Gordon's Fox Mine. Twelve hundred tons-per-day of ore from the 2600 and 2800 levels are being hoisted to the 2000 level through an 8-ft diameter bored winze. This new method replaces the diesel truck haulage system which had been in operation at the mine since 1975.
A study was initiated in 1980 to determine the most effective method of achieving the required production. The study examined several hoisting alternatives...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.G. KELLY, C.P. BROWN
Keywords: Underground mining, Hoisting, Borehole hoisting, Fox Mine, Raiseboring, Equipment maintenance, Rockbreaking.
Issue: 873
Volume: 78
Year: 1985
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