Nature and origin of mineral occurrences inside the Sudbury Basin

Abstract Rocks of the Whitewater Group (Aphebian age) occur within the Sudbury Basin and consist of three formations which are, from oldest to youngest: Onaping, heterolithic breccias /lus an igneous-textured component; Onwatin, argillite and silt-stone; and Chelmsford, greywacke with minor argillite with silts tone. Mineralization in these rocks is as follows:1) Sulphides are disseminated throughout the Onaping Formation. Pyrrhotite, the major sulphide mineral, occurs mainly as fragments; other sulphides are chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrite and marcasite.2) Zn, Pb, Cu, Ag and Au mineralization in the Vermilion member, a carbonate-chert unit near the base of the Onwatin Formation (Vermilion and Errington mines).3) Pyrite and minor base metals in the Onwatin Formation.4) Mineralized quartz veins, located at or near the base of the Onaping Formation, include such deposits as Moore Lake (Pb, Zn and Ag), Foisey (Zn, Pb), Papineau (Cu, Au and Co) and Proulx (Pb, Zn, and Cu). Quartz-carbonate veins in a meta-gabbro sill contain Cu, Zn, As and Au. Material from quartz veins from two former "gold mines" (Gordon Lake and Creighton) yielded no Au values.5) Anthraxolite veins in the Onwatin Formation.
The mineral occurrences can be explained in terms of either the volcanic theory or meteorite-impact theory of basin formation. According to the latter theory, the sulphide fragments in the Onaping Formation may have been formed by the breccia-tion of sulphide-rich pods located in the upper mantle and at the base of the transient crater; some of the sulphides may have been derived from target rocks of the Huronian Supergroup. The Vermillion-Errington deposits may represent sedimentary exhalative deposits of the Remac type; mineral-rich brines, trapped at the base of the transient crater, rose upward and precipitated the mineralized carbonate-chert under reducing conditions. These conditions continued throughout the deposition of the upper Onwatin Formation but pyrite was the only sulphide that formed.
The quartz veins were emplaced during the time of basin deformation. Metamorphism remobilized and concentrated carbonaceous material in the Onwatin Formation to form the anthraxolite veins.
Keywords: Mineral exploration, Sudbury Basin, Sulphide deposits, Pyrrhotite fragments, Sedimentary exhalative deposits, Quartz veins, Base metals, Anthraxolite, Meteorite impact
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): K.M. SARKAR
Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, Uranium recovery, Ion exchange, Fluidized bed, Economic analysis
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: Process specifications for classification system design for closed circuit grinding are identified. A computer-assisted, mass balance procedure for estimation of material size distributions and required hydrocyclone separation performance is presented.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.E. MclVOR
Keywords: Mineral processing, Material balance, Grinding circuit, Hydrocyclones, Classifiers
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: The effectiveness of two thio compounds for copper sulphide depression in molybdenite flotation has been examined with batch bench scale tests.
Both thioglycollate and trithiocarbonate proved to be good depressants producing results similar to those for cyanide and hydrosulphide. Ferrocyanide was ineffective on the sample material tested.
The depressing effect of thioglycollate was readily reversed by an addition of xanthate.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): GORDON E. AGAR
Keywords: Mineral processing, Flotation, Copper sulphides, Sodium cyanide, Ferrocyanide, Sodium hydrosulphide
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: Concentrate dewatering operations have a significant influence on the economics of base metal beneficiation. The expenditures for energy and labour per tonne of product are high. The relatively low efficiencies of standard techniques present inducements for process modifications. Development efforts at several Noranda concentrators led to process changes which improved productivity, namely, agitated pulp storage in large vessels, process automation and pressure filtration.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): K.V. KONIGSMANN
Keywords: Mineral processing, Dewatering, Pulp storage, Flotation, Pressure filter, Concentrates, Automation
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: Canadian income tax legislation contains a number of provisions which serve to facilitate the structuring of business arrangements, including mineral resource ventures. These rules are often fairly complex and not easily understood. This article attempts to explain in plain and understandable language the mechanics and benefits of one of the more frequently encountered provisions, the 'Section 85 election".
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ROBERT B. PARSONS
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: The principal objective of this study was to verify a certain number of mineralogical hypothesis which could explain the important variations observed in the performances of the B grinding and flotation circuit of the No. 1 concentrator at Mines Gaspe. Six series of samples obtained from a sampling campaign performed in the summer of 1980 have been studied. The capacity of the grinding circuit seems mainly influenced by the variations of the mineralogical and textural properties of the ore....
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.A. BÉRUBÉ
Keywords: Flotation process, Grinding, Copper carbonates, Copper sulphides, Mineral liberation
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
Text
Summary: In kraft pulp mills, the spent pulping liquor is concentrated and used as fuel in the recovery boiler. Extensive deposits are formed in the upper section of the boiler due to the very high ash content of the fuel and the volatile nature of the ash. Deposits are composed of Na2SO4, Na2CO3, NaCl, some potassium salts and reduced sulphur compounds. Chloride and potassium salts are enriched in the deposits compared to the smelt due to their greater volatility.
Severe corrosion of the superheater...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): HOC NGHIA, DOUGLAS W. REEVE, DAVID BARHAM
Keywords: Corrosion, Fireside deposits, Recovery boilers, Kraft pulp mills, Chloride, Potassium
Issue: 872
Volume: 77
Year: 1984
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