Structural geology and geostatistical parameters of the Afton copper-gold mine, Kamloops, B.C.

Abstract Afton Mines Ltd. (N.P.L.) operates an 8500-tpd open-pit copper-gold mine near Kamloops, B.C. The pit is currently 480 feet deep and will reach an ultimate depth of 800 feet.
The east, south and west walls of the pit are composed of Triassic andesites (Nicola Volcanic Formation) and contemporaneous sub-volcanic intrusions of micro-syenite, micro-diorite, diorite and picrite-basait (Iron Mask Pluton). The north wall of the pit consists of Tertiary sandstones, shales and mudstones (Tranquille Formation) and dacitic dykes, sills, flows and tuffs (Kamloops Volcanic Formation). The Afton copper-gold orebody (30 million tons of open-pit ore with a grade of 1.0 per cent copper, 0.016 oz/ton gold and 0.12 oz/ton silver} occurs within the Triassic Iron Mask Pluton adjacent to its faulted contact with Tertiary rocks. The Triassic-Tertiary contact is a complex fault system dipping 65 degrees southward and causing the Triassic rocks to overlie the Tertiary rocks. The detailed trace of this contact is very intricate due to the mutual interference of three principal fault systems.
The dominant geological structures in both Triassic and Tertiary rocks are faults striking WNW and dipping 65 degrees southward, i.e. sub-parallel to the orebody (strike faults). Cross faults and oblique faults are abundant and highly significant in some sectors of the pit. The Tertiary sedimentary rocks show an early series of northwesterly plunging folds deformed by a later series of northeasterly striking folds. Major lithological and structural boundaries divide the pit into 8 structural domains within which the pitwall slope stability is controlled by the local geological structures and lithology.
Assay data from production blasthole samples and exploration diamond drillhole samples show a log-normal frequency distribution, with a fairly low relative variance. Variograms computed from production blasthole samples show good continuity with elliptical horizontal zones of influence which are truncated by the major faults that bound the ore zone. Deep diamond drillholes in the west part of the orebody show a rhythmically banded distribution of mineralization, with copper, gold and silver decreasing generally westward, while sulphur gradually increases westward. Experimental semivariograms computed from diamond drillhole samples show excellent continuity that can be modelled by nested spherical structures.
Keywords: Economic geology, Structural geology, Geostatistics, Afton Mine, Mineralization, Open-pit mining, Gold, Silver, Copper, Slope stability.
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.E. WEIDMARK
Issue: 856
Volume: 76
Year: 1983
Text
Summary: The mechanical aspects of cable bolt failure are considered from the point of view of properties of grout and cable, as well as of the rock in which it is anchored. The results from recent investigations made in-situ as well as in the lab are combined and presented with reference to other work done in the area. An attempt is made to stimulate the thinking along these lines so as to initiate further research which may enhance the design of cable bolting as it applied to mining operations.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.L JEREMIC, G.J.P. DELAIRE
Keywords: Rock mechanics, cable bolts, Bond stress, Grout, Bond failure, Internal friction, External friction.
Issue: 856
Volume: 76
Year: 1983
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Summary: In this study, the authors investigated the stabilities of slopes cut predominantly into Trenton limestone in a large quarry in the Montreal region. Analyses of the bench and pit walls indicated that small-scale toppling, ravelling, and wedge failures are the most likely modes of instabilities. Because most of the joints dip steeply, however, the conclusion was made that relatively high walls could probably be justified.
The field investigations were supplemented with the determinations of...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): JOHN E. UDD, MARC C. BETOURNAY
Keywords: Rock mechanics, slope stability, Trenton limestone, Montreal, Structural analysis, Failure analysis, Quarries, Geology.
Issue: 856
Volume: 76
Year: 1983
Text
Summary: Carbon addition in the oxide pelletizing process is a big concern at the Sidbec-Normines pelletizing plant since 1976.
Laboratory pot-grate testing carried out before the initial start-up of the Port-Cartier plant indicated that the nominal pelletizing grate capacity could be increased by fifteen per cent with a suitable carbon addition. Also an improved induration cycle offered the possibility of a significant energy reduction within the process with no adverse effect on pellet quality. A...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. DESMEULES
Keywords: Energy management, Energy conservation, Coke breeze, Sidbec-Normines, Fire Lake, Pelletising, Pellets.
Issue: 856
Volume: 76
Year: 1983
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Summary: Kidd Creek Mines primarily employs sublevel blasthole sloping for underground mining operations. During pillar recovery in No. 1 Mine and panel mining in No. 2 Mine, the free standing fill exposures may reach a height of 100 m or more. Consequently, a competent consolidated rockfill has been required to fill the mined openings.
Since 1976, a total of more than fifty slopes and pillars have been filled with over four million tonnes of backfill. Fill exposures, up to heights of 100 m, have...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T.R. YU
Keywords: Rock mechanics, Backfill practice, Kidd Creek Mines Ltd., Blasting, Blasthole sloping, Underground mining, Aggregates, Portland cement, Ground slag.
Issue: 856
Volume: 76
Year: 1983
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