Use of oxygen in the Outokumpu flash smelting process

Abstract The Outokumpu Flash Smelting Process was put into commercial operation in 1949. The original process was based on the use of preheated air.The adoption of oxygen enrichment of the flash smelting process air in 1971 was a crucial improvement, especially for smelter capacity. Oxygen use according to the Outokumpu method means selection of the most suitable oxygen content for the process air on the basis of the concentrate composition, capacity and matte grade. The furnace is not bound to only one fixed degree of process air oxygen enrichment; the oxygen content may vary from 21%  to 100%.The degree of oxygen enrichment and the matte grade are the most important process parameters in reducing the operating costs of the whole system, including smelting, converting and acid production. Raising the matte grade allows more efficient use of the reaction heat in the smelting stage. Sulphur is recovered in a high-strength, constant-flow gas stream. The blowing time in the converters is reduced considerably.Oxygen enrichment and high matte grade improve the energy efficiency of the plant complex as long as the surplus heat from the system is not wasted. When the operating costs and investment expenditure of the total plant complex are taken into account, a reasonably high degree of oxygen enrichment (35-80%) is the best alternative in practice. Existing operating smelters have achieved single-stream thoughputs of over one million t/yr of concentrates.
Keywords: Pyrometallurgy, Oxygen, Outokumpu, Flash smelting, Harjavalta Works, Smelting, Copper smelting, Nickel smelting, Converting, Sulphur recovery
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Summary: The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has recently initiated several incentive programs to encourage and facilitate the development of new mines in northwestern Ontario. Some are privatized out to consultants and contractors. The status of three of these programs will be reviewed in this paper.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.C. BEARD
Keywords: Mining operations, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Incentive programs, Exploration, Surveys, Consultants, Gold reserves, Custom milling.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Overland conveyor systems to transport bulk materials from mines to processing plants or load-out stations have to be seriously considered as the viable alternative to truck and train haulage systems. With the ever-increasing price of diesel fuel, conveyors with their electrical drives generally prove to be the least costly when operating and maintenance expenses are analyzed for the life of the installation.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): DONALD C. CRAIGHEAD
Keywords: Conveyors, Belt conveyors, Transportation, Materials Handling, Electrical drives, Control systems.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Part 1 of this paper, published in the August issue, covered lithochemical surveys based on major, minor and trace elements in whole-rock samples from primary enveloping halos.Part 2, which follows, continues with discussions of surveys based on leakage halos, zonation of elements, stable and radioactive isotopic distributions, and geothermometric, geobarometric, thermoluminiscent, pedochemical, hydrochemical, atmochemical and biogeochemical methods. It concludes with a selected bibliography.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.W. BOYLE
Keywords: Exploration, Geochemical exploration, Mineral deposits, Blind mineral deposits, Metallogenic provinces, Lithochemical methods, Enveloping halos, Leakage halos, Carbonatites, Pegmatites, Skarn, Hornfels, Vein deposits, Massive sulphides, Carbonate-hosted deposits, Porphyry deposits.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: A common problem in the mining industry involves the overloading of established conveyor systems. This overloading can have a number of causes, such as new production technology or a changing market condition which increases demand. An overloaded system usually spells disaster and leads to clean-up problems, equipment failures and lost production. The Cape Breton Development Corporation's Lingan Mine had a serious overloading situation on its underground coal clearance system, and equipment...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.A. STEWART
Keywords: Conveyors, Belt conveyors, Booster drives, Lingan Mine, Underground mining, Drive units.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: This paper will be published in three parts. Part 1, in this issue, will cover the occurrence of uranium, radiation from uranium ores, the uranium series, radioactive theory, radioactive equilibrium and application to the radon series, the working level, the theory of emanation and diffusion, transport by thermal diffusion of radon emanating from porous rocks, and definitions.Part 2, to appear in the October issue, will deal with radiation theory applied to uranium ores, other radon migration...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.W. THOMPKINS
Keywords: Environmental control, Radiation, Uranium mines, Ventilation, Radioactive theory, Radon, Thermal diffusion, Emanation rates.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Barite is used extensively by the oil and gas well-drilling industry as a weighting agent. It is particularly well suited for drilling mud because of its qualities; it is non-abrasive, heavy, virtually inert chemically, easy to handle and inexpensive compared to other available heavy materials. Increased deep well drilling in Western Canada, and especially in the Arctic regions, could dramatically affect the demand for barite through this decade. Known deposits in northeast British Columbia...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. NUTTER, J. CLANCY
Keywords: Industrial minerals, Barite, British Columbia, Drilling muds, Mineral King property, Brisco property, Silver Giant Mine, Imports.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: For decades, writers have expressed concern about impending shortages of professionals for Canada's minerals industry. Even under the present difficult economic circumstances, it is anticipated that the supply which will be available will not be adequate to meet the requirements in certain key areas-including mining and petroleum engineering. It is evident that, unless further initiatives are taken, shortages will exist for some time.In this paper, the writer reviews information which relates...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): JOHN E. UDD
Keywords: Education, Minerals industry, Manpower, Mining engineering, Geology, Geophysics, Metallurgical engineering.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: Belt conveyors, because of their low capital and operating costs and inherent flexibility in handling a wide variety of products, have numerous applications in the mining industry. With the increased emphasis on improving the workplace environment, dust emissions from belt conveyors at transfer and other points have become a significant problem for many applications.The paper reviews belt conveyor dust control technology and compares dust emissions from belt conveyor systems with other...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H.D. GOODFELLOW, M. BENDER
Keywords: Conveyors, Belt conveyors, Environmental control, Dust control, Transfer points, Transportation.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
Text
Summary: For 25 chemical elements in electrostatically precipitated fly ash (Lingan coal-fired power station), concentration changes are studied as a function of increasing proportions of fines (ash particle diameter less than 45 micrometres). Elements that are involved when concentrations increase as the proportions of fines increase are likely to escape into the atmosphere. These are Th, U, As, S, P, Sb, Na, Ag, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ba, Sc, Al, Mo (and Bi, Ge, Ga, F and Li), i.e., more or less highly...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ERWIN L. ZODROW
Keywords: Coal combustion, Power plants, Ash analysis, Potential Atmospheric pollution, Spinels, Bottom slag, Environmental control, Lingan Plant.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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Summary: The coal deposits from Cape Perce on Cape Breton Island have been known to supply the coal requirements of the people living in or visiting the area for close to 300 years.A major block of coal has been identified off Cape Perce, which has several seams from which coal can be taken. The initial development by the Cape Breton Development Corporation will be in the Harbour Seam and constitutes the Donkin-Morien Development Project.The CBDC's confidence in this indicated resource is based on its...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.J. GILLMAN
Keywords: Coal mining, Donkin-Morien Project, Underground mining, Tunnel boring machines, Ventilation, Electrical systems.
Issue: 845
Volume: 75
Year: 1982
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