Progress in the control of underground diesel emissions

Abstract Continued and expanded use of underground diesel-powered equipment is considered desirable in order to achieve necessary production capability, particularly when coal becomes increasingly in demand as an energy source. Although diesel engines are derated for underground use, concern has been expressed in many quarters regarding the health effects of worker exposure to diesel-generatedpaniculate and NOx emissions. This concern will increase as Canadian diesel fuel quality becomes heavier and with higher sulphur content. This could result in a requirement to increase ventilation rates by 50%.This paper describes the results of studies of various approaches designed to reduce diesel emissions. Two major approaches have been followed: fuel modification, and emission control hardware development. The results of progress in the development of these approaches will be described.Fuel modification includes the application of water/diesel and methanol/diesel fuel emulsions to the engine. Details of the techniques employed in this approach will be described, together with the effects on diesel emissions. (The paper is concerned with the emission aspects only, not the possible major engine modifications and/or substitute materials of construction for 100% methanol.) Use of methanol has the added advantage of acting as a diesel fuel substitute and extender, and there are expectations that underground diesel engines could eventually operate on close to 100% methanol fuel, thereby eliminating particulate emissions. The results of emission control hardware development will also be presented and will include the effects of catalysts, water scrubbers, exhaust filters and exhaust gas recirculation techniques on emissions. A combined systems approach employing a number of these components appears to be the most viable method of controlling the complete array of diesel emissions.This work should culminate in a better understanding of the costs involved in employing fuel modification or emission control hardware relative to the costs of increased ventilation which may be necessary to maintain a safe working environment for the underground worker.
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Equipment, Fuel modification, Emission control, Methanol, Catalysts, Filters, Emulsion
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Summary: PAH compounds have been found in the exhaust from all types of engines burning hydrocarbon fuels. They have also been found in the air over cities and in water. The authors report on a study to assess the concentrations of twelve different PAH compounds in several different environments in dieselized underground mines. In addition, the differences in the PAH levels and distributions in different mines will be demonstrated. Finally, the influence of blasting and the type of diesel engine used...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): A.J. FAULDS, Z. WASZCZYLO, K.C. WESTAWAY
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Emission control, Nickel mines, Uranium mines, Salt mines, Catalytic converters, Health effects.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: The Volvo BM 861 U articulated truck is one of the few underground diesel units manufactured by an organization which shares the same corporate roof as the engine manufacturer. As a consequence, the unit has provided an opportunity for the characteristics of the entire system—turbocharged aftercooled engine, transmission and exhaust scrubber—to interact to minimize emission levels. The performance of the components of the system, as evaluated by full-scale dynamometer testing, is...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.P. MOGAN, K. KATSUYAMA, E.D. DAINTY
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Emission control, Volvo trucks, Equipment, Exhaust emissions, Health effects index.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: The use of current electronic technology in the design of new underground mine communications equipment is providing improved and expanded voice communications which can, in turn, contribute to improved productivity and safety. A review of equipment that is now available or under development includes the following categories: WIRED SYSTEMS—1. Pager phones with selective calling, audible and visual alerting and message indicator.2. Multi-conversation pager phones that use multiwire cable...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): RAYMOND C. VOIGE
Keywords: Equipment, Underground mining, Communications, Telephones, Pagers, Electronics.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: A field laboratory for use in monitoring underground mine air quality has been developed and proven in underground service. The laboratory includes two separate monitoring systems and data analysis computer programs. One is the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML). This is an enclosed trailer-mounted laboratory capable of monitoring CO2, CO, NO, NO2, particulate matter, SO2, NH3, temperature and air velocity in the mine drift. The MAML can be up to 1000 feet away from the area being...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D.E. KESKI-HYNNILA, E.O. REINBOLD, J.H. JOHNSON
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Emission control, Air quality, Ventilation, Pollution control, Monitoring systems, Data analysis, LHD mining.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: The operations of a large-scale open-cut mine are simulated to produce a user-oriented interactive digital model. SIMULA is chosen as the programming language and a sophisticated data base system is designed to consider the complex information network of large mines. The main features of the program are the mine planning and mine evaluation modules. These modules are responsible for the computation of truck-shovel performance and other equipment details in a mine. Stochastic methods are...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.K. CHATTERJEE, D.J. BRAKE
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Trucks, Dispatching, Simulation, Open-pit mining, Computers, Mine design.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: Grinding mill hydrostatic trunnion bearings require an external pumping source to provide and maintain the oil film between the bearing members. In order to guarantee a predetermined minimum film thickness, the lubrication system tends to be oversized. The oil film is "indirectly" controlled by flow, pressure and temperature monitors with fixed settings on the conservative side. This can lead to excessive maintenance and abbreviated life for the lubrication system components. A...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.L. GUERGUERIAN, E. BERCEL
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Instrumentation, Grinding mills, Bearings, Trunnion bearings, Hydrostatic bearings, Lubrication, Oil films.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: The toxicity reduction of emissions from two diesel engines by the emulsification of water into fuel oil was investigated to determine the applicability of such systems to underground mining machinery. The engines studied were: 1) the Deutz F6L714, four-stroke, air-cooled, 6-cyUnder, V-configuration, indirect-injection (IDI) engine, and 2) the Detroit Deisel Allison Division 8V71N, two-stroke, water-cooled, 8-cyUnder, V-configuration, direct-injection (DI) engine.The application of emulsified...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): E.D. DAINTY, J.P. MOGAN, A. LAWSON
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Emission control, Ventilation, Toxicity, Emulsification, Fuel emulsification, Equipment, Engines, Injection timing, LHD cycles, Health effects index.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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Summary: Plant owners and operators, plant designers and grinding mill manufacturers are giving much attention to the design and manufacture of autogenous and semi-autogenous grinding mills, particularly the mills that have large diameters and draw power up to 10,000 hp and greater. Reliable designs giving long operating lives are required in today's ore processing plants.This paper reviews bench-scale and pilot-plant testing to determine first if the ore is suitable to be ground by these methods and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.A. ROWLAND
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Comminution, Grinding, Milling, Autogenous grinding, Power data, Ball mills, Rod mills.
Issue: 835
Volume: 74
Year: 1981
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