The impact on underground ventilation of the reduction of diesel emissions toxicity by water-in-oil fuel emulsification

CIM Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 835, 1981
E.D. DAINTY and J.P. MOGAN, Research Scientists, Canadian Explosive Atmospheres Laboratory, Mining Research Laboratories, CANMET, EMR Canada, Ottawa, A. LAWSON, Principal Scientist, Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Ontario Research Foundation, Mississauga, Ontario
Abstract The toxicity reduction of emissions from two diesel engines by the emulsification of water into fuel oil was investigated to determine the applicability of such systems to underground mining machinery. The engines studied were: 1) the Deutz F6L714, four-stroke, air-cooled, 6-cyUnder, V-configuration, indirect-injection (IDI) engine, and 2) the Detroit Deisel Allison Division 8V71N, two-stroke, water-cooled, 8-cyUnder, V-configuration, direct-injection (DI) engine.The application of emulsified fuel treatment to the two-stroke engine did not prove to be practicable. In the case of the Deutz engine, however, substantial benefit resulted. For a modest 15 per cent water content in the fuel and an injection timing of 24° BTDC, approximate reductions of 40 per cent in the concentrations of both particulate matter and nitric oxide (NO) were produced. These reductions were accompanied by insignificant changes in other toxic constituents. The net result was an approximate 30 per cent reduction in the over-all exhaust toxicity for typical LHD operation as assessed by the Health Effects Index criterion. This toxicity reduction represents a significant advance from the points of view of an improved underground environment and/or reduced ventilation costs.
Keywords: Underground mining, Diesel emissions, Emission control, Ventilation, Toxicity, Emulsification, Fuel emulsification, Equipment, Engines, Injection timing, LHD cycles, Health effects index.
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