Mineralogy and characteristics that affect recoveries of metals and trace elements from the ore at Heath Steele Mines, New Brunswick

Abstract The mineralogy of the feed, concentrates and tailings from the Heath Steele mill in New Brunswick was studied in detail to determine the liberation and recoveries of the major ore minerals, and to characterize the occurrence and distribution of the trace elements. The ore milled during August 1977 contained an average of 4.34 wt % Zn, 1.25 wt % Cu, 1.64 wt % Pb and 90 gr/ton Ag. The main trace elements in the ore are silver, cadmium, indium, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, arsenic, mercury, tin and gold. Silver is carried in solid solution in tetrahedrite-tennantite, galena, Ag-Sb sulfosalts and Pb-Bi-Sb sulfosalts. Approximately half of the silver is recovered in the lead and copper concentrates and the remainder is lost in the tailings and Zn concentrate. As the major silver-bearing minerals also contain Sb andBi, recovering silver by ore dressing would involve recovering elements that are troublesome in extraction metallurgy. Cadmium and most of the indium and mercury occur in solid solution in sphalerite and consequently are recovered in the zinc concentrate. Some indium is also recovered in the copper concentrate in a second unidentified indium-bearing mineral. Cobalt and arsenic occur principally in arsenopyrite, cobaltite, a Co-Fe sulfarsenide, pyrite and pyrrhotite, and follow these minerals into the tailings. Recovery of the valuable element cobalt, therefore, would involve recovering the environmentally hazardous element arsenic. Most of the tin and gold report to tailings.The ore was ground to about 80% minus 270 mesh. At this grind, 71 wt % of the sphalerite, 66 wt % of the chalcopyrite and 59 wt % of the galena were liberated. Recoveries of free sphalerite, free chalcopyrite and free galena in the Zn, Cu and Pb concentrates were 85 wt %, 76 wt % and 80 wt %, respectively; recoveries of unliberated sphalerite, unliberated chalcopyrite and unliberated galena in the respective Zn, Cu and Pb concentrates were 48 wt %, 5 wt % and 7 wt %. Some of the unliberated sphalerite and chalcopyrite grains in the tailings are large and would have been liberated at a finer grind.
Keywords: Mineralogy, Trace elements, Silver, Chalcopyrite, Galena, Sphalerite, Size distribution, Mineral liberation, Metal recovery, Mill concentrates, Tailings, Heath Steele Mines Ltd., New Brunswick, Sulphide ores.
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Summary: Heat-shrinkable cable accessories are solving problems in the mining industry. This paper describes a range of products used by the industry, including low-voltage splices, high-voltage splices to 8.7 k V, cable repair sleeves, mining cable terminations used on system voltages up to 25 kVand motor connection kits up to 8 kV. Technical procedures and designs are illustrated.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.W. MEI, D.J. MOORE, R.A. STROMBOM
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Electricity, Environmental control, Cables, Splices, Heat-shrinkable materials.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Tunnel boring machines have been tried in underground mining applications as early as 1957. Although tunneling machines hardly threaten to supplant traditional drill-blast-muck operations for drifting, the latest modern machines offer substantial improvements in progress rates over traditional methods under certain conditions.An evaluation guide is offered which identifies conditions that favour machine boring. Different types of costs related to the use of a tunnel machine are discussed. The...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): HOWARD J. HANDEWITH
Keywords: Equipment, Boring machines, Tunnel boring, Underground mining, Machine utilization.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Historically, gear pumps and motors have been popular in the mining industry because of their competitive cost, simple yet rugged construction, ease of rebuild, and relative long life and insensitivity to contamination. However, with the ever increasing "popularity" of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids, both users and manufacturers of gear equipment must make special considerations to enable the equipment to continue giving satisfactory performance even with the water-containing...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T.P. KOSTEK
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Gear pumps, Motors, Fluids, Fiie-resistant fluids, Emulsions, Water glycols, Lubrication.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Significant energy savings are often possible for centrifugal compressors operating in parallel by improved control strategy and improved instrumentation. Blow-off can usually be reduced by improved surge control combined with a better control strategy for loading and unloading the group of machines. More precise and stable pressure control then becomes possible. This improved control strategy will also decrease the frequency of operation near the dangerous limits of surge or overload or...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): N. STAROSELSKY
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Compressors, Centrifugal compressors, Energy, Instrumentation, Surge control, Power consumption.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Using the concept of economic life and marginal analysis, it can be shown that proper equipment replacement timing can save a mining company many thousands of dollars. To assist management with determining the economic life of mining equipment, a new computer package has been developed. The package, called ERG (equipment replacement guide), incorporates all important economic factors related to equipment usage, such as operating costs, maintenance costs, salvage values, depreciation, volume...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.E. STEWART
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Economic life, Marginal analysis, Computers, ERG system.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: The successful design of a new mine water pumping system is in part dependent upon the accuracy with which the operating conditions can be forecast. This paper outlines the data which should be obtained on water quantity and quality. Methods of modifying the quality are also discussed. Some pumping systems for disposal of sludge are described, citing operating examples. The various types of mine dewatering pumps are described in terms of design characteristics as they affect operating...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.J. DAVIE, D.S. ROSS
Keywords: Equipment, Underground mining, Pumps, Dewatering, Sludge disposal, Corrosion, Drainage, Thompson Mine.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Shovel buckets, scraper blades, dipper teeth, mine car wheels and hammermills are examples of equipment which require routine maintenance due to abrasion. Service life can be extended by the use of hardfacing and buildup materials. Mining and milling applications are described and field welding procedures discussed.A high-stress abrasion test used to select hardfacing and buildup materials for hammers in a hammermill is described in detail. Field tests of the selected alloys confirmed their...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S. SHEWCHUK, R.J. DAWSON, R.A. BELAND
Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, Hardfacing, Abrasion, Welding, Hammermills, Alloys.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Careful tax planning and proper attention to the regulations can result in an optimum deduction of the 25% federal resource allowance.Introduced in the Income Tax Act in 1976, in part to compensate for the disallowance of provincial mining taxes and royalties, the 25% "resource allowance" is a permitted deduction in computing taxable income from mining and petroleum. However, the rules relating to the deduction are complex, and the importance of the deduction— which can...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ROBERT D. BROWN, ROBERT B. PARSONS
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: Coals from the Corporation's Lingan and No. 26 mines are classified as high-volatile A bituminous, with a very low inherent ash and containing all essential properties to provide metallurgical coal, with the exception of a high sulphur content. Only through proper cleaning at low specific gravity can thepyritic sulphur fraction of the coal be liberated to an extent where final sulphur meets coking standards.This first section of the paper deals with the operation of a Dutch S'ate Mines...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): B.W. CLYBURN
Keywords: Separation, Gravity separation, Abrasion, Corrosion, Devco, Cyclones, Coal preparation, Harbour Seam, Lingan Colliery, Victoria Junction Plant, Pipe, Equipment.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: A major challenge of contemporary exploration geochemistry is the development of procedures that can locate blind mineralization or mineralization that sub-crops below a cover of transported overburden, the composition of which bears no relation to the underlying mineralization. Over the past few years, the possible existence of diagnostic geochemical features in the country rock associated with volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits has attracted increasing attention both on the local mine...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): V.J. SOPUCK, O.P. LAVIN, IAN NICHOL
Keywords: Exploration, Geochemistry, Lithogeochemistry, Sulphides, Massive sulphides, Volcanogenic deposits, Noranda, Normetal, Sturgeon Lake, Uchi Lake, Ben Nevis, Kakagi Lake, Joutel-Poirier, Halliday, Knee Lake, Lake St. Joseph, Steep Rock, Michipicoten, Confederation Lake, Amisk, Flin Flon.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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Summary: This paper describes the application of a motor-driven flywheel unit, known as a peak shaver, to compensate for the cyclic load fluctuations of a large electric dragline installed at Pine Point Mines, near Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories. Of particular interest in this application is the fact that the power system supplying the dragline is a relatively small isolated system, with the major generating source approximately 170 miles from the mine.The cyclic load fluctuations of...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T.E. SMITH, D. PHILLIPS
Keywords: Equipment, Draglines, Pine Point Mines Ltd., Peak shavers, Power systems, Electricity.
Issue: 823
Volume: 73
Year: 1980
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