Low-grade geothermal potential of the Regina - Moose Jaw area, Saskatchewan

Abstract Porous and permeable rocks deeply buried in sedimentary basins contain immense volumes of hot water with the potential to supply low-grade heat energy. A part of Canada with sizeable potential for low-grade geothermal energy is the northern Williston Basin of southern Saskatchewan. In this region, the University of Regina has conducted a geological study investigating the feasibility of producing large quantities of warm water suitable for space heating in the Regina - Moose Jaw area. The study has shown that the most favourable geothermal reservoirs are in the Basal Clastic Unit (Cambrian-Ordovician), which, at an approximate depth of 2,000 metres, has predicted temperatures of 71°C to 74 °C. We anticipate sustainable flow rates from these reservoirs of 100 to 300 m3/hr. The water contains about 150,000 ppm of total dissolved solids, mostly sodium chloride. It is anticipated that the sulphate content will be 3,000 to 6,000ppm, that the dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulphide content will be small, and that the waters will be neutral to slightly alkaline. It is anticipated that the piezometric level will be 46 m below the ground surface for reservoirs in the upper part of the Basal Clastic Unit and 141 m below the ground surf ace for the lower reservoirs of the unit.Plans are to build a low-grade geothermal research, testing and demonstration facility at the University of Regina. To be a practical demonstration, the facility will have to handle very large volumes of water. Because of high salinity, the water will be reinjected into a subsurface reservoir. We do not anticipate insurmountable problems because of salinities or as a result of corrosion provided that the waters are not aerated during handling.
Keywords: Energy resources, Geothermal energy, Regina area, Moose Jaw area, Williston Basin, Stratigraphy, Water flows, Temperature measurements, Salinity, Piezometric levels, Seismic data.
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Summary: The paper outlines the factors taken into account for the selection of steel arch supports. The results are based on experience using the longwall system of coal mining where roadway closure can be extreme. Results of tests on scale-model steel arches and full-scale yield elements are also presented.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): A. B. SZWILSKI
Keywords: Coal mining, Roadway steel, Steel supports, Arch supports, Roof control, United Kingdom, Longwall mining, Support systems, Deformation.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: Mechanical-electrical personnel are present in all phases of the mining industry; the coverage is broad and diversified. Concepts of energy accounting are reviewed to pinpoint the sectors with a large energy consumption. Four sectors are reviewed: underground hard-rock mines, underground soft-rock mines, open-pit mines and mineral processing. In each sector, five or six technical innovations are analyzed as to their contribution to a more efficient use of energy.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): JACQUES MANTEL
Keywords: Mechanical sector, Electrical sector, Mining industry, Technical innovations, Energy conservation, Underground mining, Open-pit mining, Mineral processing.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: The use and development of industrial process control computers in the mineral industry during the 1970's has been sluggish. This cautious approach is due to lack of commitment by senior management. The lack of commitment is due to several reasons: variable mineral processes and technologies, market fluctuations, and excessive costs and inadequacies of applicable products supplied by computer vendors.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. N. MADGE
Keywords: Process control, Computers, Data processing, Microprocessors, Communications, Mill control.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: The background for the 630-million-dollar-plus iron ore project at Kudremukh is outlined. The system and plants for mining, crushing, concentrating, transporting via a slurry pipeline, filtering and shiploading 7.5 million metric tons of iron ore per year are fully described. The mode of operation and the problems encountered in such a transfer of North American technology to developing countries are analyzed. Difficulties encountered during construction are discussed and the progress...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. E. FISCHER, E. HAY
Keywords: Iron ore, India, Kudremukh project, Open-pit mining, Drilling, Blasting, Loading, Haulage, Crushing, Conveyors, Magnetic circuits, Gravity circuits, Slurry pipelines, Tailings, Water supply, Power supply, Control systems.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: Preliminary studies of the potential for the production of warm water (up to perhaps 150 °C) have been carried out in the Plains region of Western Canada. Production might be from depths as great as about 5 km. Natural waters in this temperature range are currently being used for space heating in other parts of the world. The geography and stratigraphy of the Prairie Provinces are reviewed in terms of their apparent potential for warm-water production. Temperature, salinity and other data...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H.A. GORRELL
Keywords: Energy resources, Geothermal energy, Plains region, Heating, Western Canada Basin, Temperature measurements, Weyburn area, Calgary area, Fort Nelson area, Water flows, Salinity.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: A pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu ore was percolation leached with acidified ferric sulphate solutions; zinc and copper were leached, lead was oxidized, but not dissolved, and pyrite was essentially unattacked. High zinc extractions were achieved after a few months leaching, and substantial zinc solution concentrations could be produced by recycle of the oxidized solution. The leaching rate was generally controlled by the transport of the ferric sulphate oxidant. Zinc extractions increased with increasing...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J. E. DUTRIZAC
Keywords: Mineral processing, Ferric sulphate, Leaching, Percolation leaching, Sulphide ores, Zinc extractions, Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corporation, Dissolution curves, Sulphuric acid, Cupric ions, Chloride ions, Bacterial oxidation.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
Text
Summary: Following the initial development of the zinc-lead blast furnace, efforts have been directed both at increasing the scope of the process and increasing the cash return. The paper reviews the process developments which enable the process to smelt efficiently a range of material which encompasses high-grade zinc sulphide concentrates, mixed concentrates, Waelz oxide, zinc ashes and other materials blended to give a furnace feed ranging from 25 to 65% zinc and from 1 to 25% lead, with a...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. F. HARRIS
Keywords: Process metallurgy, Non-ferrous processes, Zinc smelting, Lead smelting, Blast furnaces, Imperial Smelting Process, Bell gears, Condensers, Sintering, Leaching, Copper recovery.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
Text
Summary: The application of large-diameter bore holes in underground operations at Heath Steele was first tried in February, 1975. Since that time, 90,000 feet of 6-1/2-inch holes have been drilled, primarily in open blasthole sloping, for a total of 1.4 million tons, 37% of underground production.This paper deals with a review of drilling with conventional percussion longhole drills, a practice which is still utilized at Heath Steele, and the changeover to accommodate the use of larger blastholes in...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ERROL LADNER
Keywords: Underground mining, Drilling, In-the-hole drilling, Heath Steele Mines, Stoping, Blasthole Stoping, Compressors, Bits.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
Text
Summary: A study of the various components contributing to energy costs and their relationships to generally trended operating data, such as tonnage, operating costs, etc., over progressively shorter time periods provides information for an energy audit. A study of annual data gives some insight into the importance of various energy components. As the time frame of the study progresses through monthly, daily and, finally, into quarter-hourly data, the variations become more evident and, most important...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D.M. DOYLE
Keywords: Energy conservation, Wesfrob, Falconbridge, Electrical control, Underground mining, Mineral processing, Heating, Process control.
Issue: 810
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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