Ventilation and refrigeration practices together with environmental thermal problems at the Mindola Mine, Zambia

Abstract This article is based on a detailed heat investigation conducted at the Rokana Division of Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines Limited while both authors were employed in Zambia. Mindola Mine is one of the three underground mines comprising the Rokana Division on the Copperbelt of Zambia, producing about 270,000 tons of ore per month at 1.9% Cu and 0.14% Co.The total volume of air being circulated by means of five primary fan installations slightly exceeds 1,000 m3/sec at standard density. Sectional bulk cooling is practised where air cooling coils are installed at primary splits some considerable distance from the sloping operations. Total capacity of the refrigeration complex is 10,500 kw (3,500 R. tons), of which about 7,000 kw is available as effective cooling power after losses, but the heat removed from the coils is about 3,500 kw with 61% over-all plant performance.An extension program is planned for a further five production levels with the re-deepening of a sub-vertical shaft. Thermal heat will become a major problem at increased depth associated with higher rock temperature, higher thermal conductivity of the rock groups encountered and fissure water flowing into working areas through the strata with increased rock temperature. This paper describes the ventilation and refrigeration practices in Mindola Mine, with special reference to future thermal heat problems. These are discussed with a view to mining at depth.
Keywords: Underground mining, Ventilation, Refrigeration, Environmental control, Mindola Mine, Zambia, Fans, Cooling, Heating, Thermal balance
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Summary: This paper comprises a discussion of the role which mineral resources will play in Canada's future export trade and the growing demand for minerals in Canada.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.L. DRAKE, D.D. PETERS
Keywords: Mineral economics, Mineral resources, Exports, Markets, Trade, Taxation, Economics
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: This paper evaluates current environmental protection legislation, guidelines and criteria, focusing mainly on the land and water disposal of mill tailings. Effluent criteria and regulatory mechanisms are proposed, and submarine tailing disposal is discussed at length. The importance of basing regulations on the best available rationale is stressed.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G.W. POLING
Keywords: Tailings disposal, Environmental control, Water pollution, Reagent interactions, Effluents, Pollution control, Island Copper Mine, Marine tailing disposal
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: This paper reports on an investigation undertaken to determine the exhaust gas temperatures of operating underground mining equipment. The effectiveness of platinum catalytic purifiers is discussed. From exhaust temperatures, it is concluded that LHD engines are highly loaded, haulage truck engines are moderately loaded and utility vehicle engines are lightly loaded.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D.B. STEWART, J.A.D. EBERSOLE, J.P. MOGAN
Keywords: Underground mining, Exhaust temperatures, Diesel equipment, Catalyctic purifyers, Platinum, Denison Mines Ltd., Trucks, LHD vehicles
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: This paper takes a look at the use of rubber to provide corrosion resistance and wear resistance in the mining industry. The longer life and reduced down time involved with the use of rubber are stressed, and examples are given of applications in grinding mills, skips, discharge chutes and screens.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): W. FERGUSSON
Keywords: Corrosion, Materials engineering, Rubber, Wear resistance, Dust control, Mill linings, Grinding mills, Skip linings, Discharge chutes, Screens
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: As an increase in the number of producers alters factors affecting supply, long-term prospects in traditional markets for many minerals weaken. At the same time, conflicts between national and international objectives undermine existing competitive elements in mineral markets and Canadian costs escalate. Such changes may dramatically alter the environment in which the mining industry operates.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): DOROTHY WALTERS
Keywords: Mineral economics, Consumption, Supply, International trade, Trade, Markets, Produstion costs, Government regulations, Taxation
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: Cut-and-fill mining methods at the Thompson Mine have undergone significant changes since production began in 1961. Changes have been introduced in almost all aspects of the mining operation, from the original timbered chutes and air-operated slushers to the present-day bored raises, footwall ore passes and load-haul-dump units.This paper describes the evolution of mechanized cut-and-fill mining methods, highlighting the changes in design for stapes and service openings, ground support...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.B. HUMPHREY, E.G. NICHOLSON
Keywords: Underground mining, Cut-and-fill mining, Thompson Mine, Stope development, Sills, Drifts, Raises, Manways, Ore passes, Ventilation, Sandfill
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: A general approach to mine backfill design, including laboratory testing procedures, is outlined in this paper. Relationships between certain design parameters are developed and the effect of other factors is discussed. It is concluded that the inclusion of backfill design calculations at an early stage of mine design can often produce over-all design economies. Not only are the data needed for backfill plant and tailings disposal area design, but also the pillar recovery method and over-all...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): ROBERT J. MITCHELL, JOHN D. SMITH
Keywords: Underground mining, Backfill design, Tailings, Mine layout, Drainage, Cement, Slimes, Percolation tests, Strength tests, Compressibility, Hydraulic backfilling
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: The paper outlines the need for high-volume ventilation in a uranium mining operation based on the design to meet environmental requirements for dust, radiation and diesel equipment.Mining methods in a highly mechanized operation, a key factor in design, are discussed. The construction and installation of major intake and exhaust fans are described briefly, together with the development of the mine airways and distribution system.Controls in the form of doors and bulkheads are important...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G. STEMMING
Keywords: Underground mining, Ventilation, Denison Mines Ltd., Uranium mining, Environmental control, Dust control, Radiation, Diesel equipment, Fans, Air distribution
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: On November 16, 1978, Finance Minister Chretien delivered his second formal budget in the House of Commons. Over-all, the provisions of the budget should provide moderate stimulus to the Canadian economy. With respect to the mining industry, the budget offers some welcome changes in the form of: improved write-offs for development expenses and social assets; higher investment tax credits; and a reduction in federal sales tax. On the other hand, income bond financing of new mineral ventures...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R. D. BROWN
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
Text
Summary: Environmental monitoring plays a key role in coal mine safety. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the development of systems suitable for monitoring air in underground coal mines. Because of intensive mining and large capital outlay, the need for higher productivity consistent with safety is well recognized and it appears that environmental monitoring may help achieve this objective.This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the monitoring technology with particular...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.N. CHAKRAVORTY, R.L WOOLF
Keywords: Coal mining, Safety, Environmental control, Mechanometry, Carbon monoxide, Spontaneous combustion, Underground mining, Gas detection, Kaiser Resources Ltd., Sparwood Mine
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: In 1976, Rio Algom Limited began the expansion of uranium production facilities at Elliot Lake. Quirks Mine was the only property in operation at the time, and plans were made to expand its milling capacity from 4,500 to 7,000 tons of ore per day. Following this expansion, other properties in the area will be reactivated to fulfill long-term contracts for uranium.As part of the expansion program, it was decided that in view of the escalating cost and impending shortage of energy, heat reclaim...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): W.D. BONISTEEL, J. MARTINOVIC
Keywords: Environmental control, Heat recovery, Rio Algom Ltd., Ventilation, Plant heating, Uranium mills, Leaching, Compressor houses
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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Summary: The Centennial orebody was discovered and named in 1970, Manitoba's centennial year. It is relatively small, about 2 million tons. Strike length varies from 400 to 600 feet and widths from 10 to 60 feet; dip is 75 degrees.Low grade and metal prices demanded low-cost mining, and the mine was developed for conventional sublevel sloping. As the ore lay entirely under a large lake, ground movement had to be avoided and the slopes were to be filled hydraulically.Late in 1973, vertical crater...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.S. CROCKER
Keywords: Underground mining, Vertical reater retreat mining, Cnetennial mine, Stoping, Pillar recovery, Cratering, Backfillings, Blasting, Drilling
Issue: 801
Volume: 72
Year: 1979
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