Diamonds In Canada

Abstract The possibility of diamonds occurring in Canada was first raised by W. H. Hobbs in 1899, who concluded:"that the apex of the fan of diamond distribution probably lies somewhere in the strip of the territory bordering James Bay on the east."This was based on the occurrence of diamonds in surflcial sediments at various locations south of the Great Lakes.There are two recorded discoveries of drift diamonds in Ontario: (a) the Peterborough Diamond, 33 carats in size, poorly documented and found sometime before 1920; and (b) the Jar-vi Diamond, 0.255 carat, found during 1971 in Sheraton Township near Timmins. Both discoveries were in surflcial sediments and their source(s) have not been located.During 1960, Selco Exploration Company Ltd. started a heavy-mineral sample program of river gravels in the James Bay Lowlands of Ontario. This was continued by Canadian Rock Company Ltd. (1962-1963) and the Ontario Division of Mines (1973). The surveys discovered the presence of kimberlite minerals in gravel samples from streams draining the Moose River Basin. A total of 53 pyrope grains, four magnesian ilmenites and one grain of chrome diopside were identified from 32 sample locations. A study of the distribution of these minerals suggested the kimberlite source rocks to be located along the north margin or within the Kapuskasing gravity "high" in the area immediately south of James Bay. The Jarvi Diamond, found on an esker east of Timmins, could well have originated from this area.During 1965, an esker was sampled by the Geological Survey of Canada, and the results attracted attention to the area south of Lake Abitibi. At 9 out of 34 sites sampled along the Munro esker, Lee recorded the presence of pyrope garnets and very minor chrome diopside. The subsequent search for the source of the kimberlite minerals resulted in the discovery, during 1968, of a 3-foot-wide dyke of kimberlite on the 2750-ft level of the Upper Canada Mine in Gauthier Twp., Ontario. Earlier work by Satterly had recorded the intersection of two thin (6-in.) kimberlite dykes in drill holes in Michaud Township, Ontario. The author does not consider these two occurrences to be the only sources of the pyrope garnets detected. He considers that there are other undiscovered kimberlites present in the general area which contributed pyrope to the esker samples. The logical areas to search would be along rift valleys with associated carbonatites in the area north of Arnold Twp., Ontario.The three kimberlitic occurrences mapped on lie Bizard, 9 miles west of Montreal, form part of the Monteregian Hills. One of the three occurrences, the Pain de Sucre diatreme, yielded ten microscopic diamonds, the largest being 0.0244 carat in size, as the result of sampling completed by Canadian Rock Company Ltd. during 1968. This is the first bedrock diamond discovery made in Canada.Collerson has recorded the occurrence of kimberlitic diatremes and dykes near Saglek on the northeast coast of Labrador. He considers their emplacement to be related to the early formation of the Labrador Sea.Recent work by Diapros Canada Ltd. and Cominco Ltd. on Somerset Island resulted in the discovery of at least 19 kimberlite occurrences during 1973-1974. One of these, the Batty Pipe, covers an area of about 95 acres, which compares favourably with other pipes recorded elsewhere. A "few small diamonds" were recovered by Diapros from bulk samples collected from the Batty, Elwin and Diapros pipes during 1974 and 1975. Emplacement of the Somerset Island kimberlites appears to be controlled by continental rifting associated with opening of the North Atlantic, which commenced during Cretaceous times (80 m.y.) and is still active.Prospecting for kimberlites in the Canadian Arctic is much simpler and more rewarding than similar efforts in the forested drift-covered areas of southern Canada.Since Hobbs first suggested (1899) the possibility of diamonds occurring in Canada, a considerable amount of work has been done since 1960. This has since accelerated with the discovery of the Somerset Island kimberlites and recognition of the association of kimberlites with rift structures in the Arctic and elsewhere. The search for diamonds is still in progress and results will eventually be published when the discoverers are ready to do so.
Keywords: Diamonds, Economic geology, Peterborough Diamond, Jarvi Diamond, Kimberlites, Glacial drift, James Bay Lowlands, He Bizard, Labrador, Somerset Island, Rift structures, Carbonatites.
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Summary: This paper discusses the installation of corrugated steel linings in bored raises at Inco's Thompson Mine. The procedure for the installation of these linings is outlined and the relative advantages are compared with conventional methods of ground support. Future trends in the use of corrugated steel products are then discussed.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Richard N. Zimmer
Keywords: Underground mining, Linings, Raise boring, Thompson Mine, Steel linings, Sloping, Timbering.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
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Summary: The geographic occurrence of economic mineral deposits presents a variety of problems in modern tailings disposal operations. This paper presents case histories in several sectors of the mineral industry as well as the several stages of operations planning required for new designs, system expansion, reactivation of abandoned systems and upgrading to present environmental standards.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J. D. Jones, R. G. Jenkins
Keywords: Environmental control, Tailings ponds, Reclamation, Thierry Project, Madawaska Mines Ltd., Madeleine Mines Ltd., Water reclaim, Dams.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
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Summary: Project Environmental Approval is a multi-faceted issue. From a mining perspective, it is a costly item because of avoidable time delay. The government perspective is that the approvals are a necessary part of meeting departmental requirements to ensure that the well-being of other uses of the environment is maintained.This paper outlines some of the problems inherent in the environmental approvals process and makes recommendations to both the proponent and government about improving the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): B. R. Boardman, M. McCartney
Keywords: Environmental control, Project approvals, Resource development, Design engineering, Mining claims, Construction, Permits, Approvals, Government agencies.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
Text
Summary: A process utilizing ozone for the precipitation of cobalt from nickel sulphate liquors containing ammonium sulphate has been developed. Best results were obtained using nickel carbonate to maintain solution pH at 5.0 to 5.5. Work was performed both in column and stirred-tank reactors. Variables studied included neutralizer type and concentration, NH4+ concentration, temperature, Ni++ and Co++ concentration, per cent O3 in the O2 carrier gas, O3 input rate and agitation. The over-all rate of...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C. Nikolic, P. B. Queneau, W. G. Sherwood, C. B. Barlow, C. S. Simons
Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, Nickel, Cobalt, Ozonation, Reactors, Agitators, Column reactors.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
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Summary: The annual production of mineral and mineral-based wastes in Canada is conservatively estimated to be 400 million tons. Over 90 per cent of this amount is waste rock or mill tailings from the mining and mineral processing industry. The remainder are slags and ashes from the metallurgical industry, and sludges from the chemical industry. Because of impurity content, remote location, or both, most wastes have limited usefulness and, indeed, are a liability in that they must be transported to...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.K. Ceilings
Keywords: Environmental control, Industrial minerals, Mineral wastes, Waste resources, Tailings, Slag, Ash, Sludge.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
Text
Summary: Cerro Verde is one of several large porphyry-type copper deposits in Southern Peru. The copper occurs as primary sulphides, with a significant oxide capping. The exploitation of the deposit has been correspondingly divided into two stages, the first consisting of copper production from oxides, and the second from sulphides.Minero Peru successfully started the Stage I plant in June of 1977 with the first production of electroron copper cathodes. This paper is essentially devoted to a descripti...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): Victor R. Eyzaguirre P., Roy Ellerman, Lynton Gormely
Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, Cerro Verde Project, Peru, Copper production, Crushing, Leaching, Pad leaching, Solvent extraction, Solution storage, Electrowinning, Cosecha solutions.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
Text
Summary: Among the known iron deposits in Canada, many are of low grade and require beneficiation to produce an acceptable blastfurnace feed. Some of the deposits have never been considered for commercial exploitation due to the lack of a suitable concentrating process. A number of deposits of this type are located in Northern Ontario. The problem in upgrading these deposits is three fold. Firstly, the iron occurs as a mixture of magnetite and hematite. Secondly, the grain size of the material can be...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): H. O. Lien, J. G. Morrow
Keywords: Mineral processing, Beneficiation, Iron ores, Flocculation, Desliming, Grinding, Autogenous grinding, Pebble milling, Starch, Geraldton deposit, Reagents.
Issue: 798
Volume: 71
Year: 1978
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