Geophysical Engineering and Surveys Limited of the Keevil Mining Group have routinely conducted ground surveys with VLF-EM receivers for the past two years. Both Crone's Radem and Ronka's EM16 have been used. VLF-EM dip-angle data often yield complex patterns which require considerable study for a proper interpretation. A method was developed which allows field operators to transform the noncontourable dip angles into contourable data, producing conductor patterns which are immediately apparent to exploration personnel untrained in VLF-EM interpretation. VLF-EM contoured data generally peak very close to the top of a conductor, thereby allowing drill holes to be spotted accurately. However, the data generally should not be used alone to select drill targets because structures may be sufficiently conductive to yield strong anomalies. Thus, magnetic and/or vertical-loop EM correlations may be considered as necessary criteria for drilling. VLF-EM surveys can replace IP surveys in certain environments. For example, the Restigouche orebody in the Bathurst camp of New Brunswick yielded a VLF-EM anomaly as distinct as that obtained by IP, although the body did not respond to vertical- or horizontal-loop EM. However, the cupriferous breccia pipes of the Tribag mine near Batchawana, Ontario yield strong IP anomalies but not VLF-EM anomalies, illustrating that disseminated ore targets should be sought with IP rather than with VLF-EM.
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