Prestress and Stress Redistribution in Rocks Around A Mine Opening
The stress equilibrium is disturbed in a body of rock by a mine opening and is restored by a redistribution of the stresses around the opening. The pattern of the redistribution of unilateral stress around an opening has been established by mathematical analysis and photoelastic measurements. The pattern for multilateral stress is found by superimposition of unilateral fields. The mathematical analysts do not use the elastic moduli as parameters and they are not significant in photoelastic work. The medium is isotropic. The concept of unilateral stress from vertical loading and the classical pattern of its stress distribution around openings does not explain commonly observed failures around the perimeters of mine openings. They show evidence of compression where tension is postulated. When it is recognized that few minerals and perhaps no rocks are Hooke Solids, most rocks must be St. Venant Solids. The components have varying degrees of elasticity and viscosity. The assembly will behave elastically to rupture under shock loading, but when loaded short of rupture will adjust viscously to equilibrium. Similarly, the highly elastic components may initiate rupture before equilibrium can be established when stress is instantaneously relieved. Polycrystalline adjustments may produce permanent deformation. The mechanics of consolidation, especially in sedimentary deposits, acquire a stress component normal to the direction of compaction which can exceed that of the loading. It is one source of prestress. There are others. The principles of prestress design are based on the normal beam reactions, modified by a built-in compression in the lower chord. When the beam is loaded to design limits, the lower chord retains some compression and the whole beam depth is effective in compression. Some of the . common evidences of failure in compression over a mine opening can be duplicated in a prestressed experimental model.
elastic moduli, mathematical analysis, Queen's University, rock, stress, Failure, failures, Load, Mine, Mines, Rock, Rocks, Strain, stress