Recent Developments in Iron Smelting and Steelmaking Processes
THE GROWTH of the major iron and steel industries on this continent and in many European countries was based on the use of as-mined, high-grade, lump iron ores and on the availability of metallurgical coking coals. The modern cokefired blast furnace was developed for such materials and is one of the most efficient of ail pyrometallurgical processes. Most of the impure pig iron produced by blast furnaces was converted to refined steel by the Bessemer process in the years prior to 1900 but, when large quantities of low-cost steel scrap became available, the more flexible open hearth process was adopted by most large steel producers on this continent. Although this process has many desirable metallurgical features, the thermal efficiency is low, the capital cost is very high, and the method of charging scrap steel is inefficient by modern standards of material handling.
Bessemer process, blast furnace, iron ore, pig iron, smelting, blast furnaces, Ore, Ores, Process, Processes, steel, Steels