Hydraulic Tailings Transportation of Oil-Sand in Small-Diameter Pipes

Laboratory-:scale studies were made to investigate 1the flow characteristics of sand in connection with hydraulic tailings disposal at projected Athabaska oil-sand workings. Friction factor determinations showed that a critical velocity for pipeline flow existed, in agreement with 1the observations of other investigators; the magnitude of the critical velocity as influenced by various operating variables was measured. The effect of tempe1,ature was not great. Increasing .the temperature from lOO F. to 160°F. brought about a change in critical velocity from 8.5 ft. per sec. to 8.1 ft. per sec. The effect of solids concentration was much more pronounced with a change from 25 per cent to 49 per cent solids bringing about a change in .critical velocity from 6.6 ft. per sec. to 8.8 ft. per sec. Pipe size had an appreciable effect on the critical velocity. For a 50% solids suspension, the critical velocity was 8.4 f.t. 1per sec. in a two-inch pipe and only 6.9 ft. per sec. in a one inch pipe.
Keywords: Climax, Colorado, Hydraulic Tailings Transportation of Oil-Sand, pipeline, space velocity, specific gravity, Concentration, flow, Friction, Pipe, Pipeline, Pipelines, Sand, Temperature, Water, Waters
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