Large-scale land reclamation has been undertaken in Singapore since the 1960s. In the early years, the fill materials excavated from the hills. In recent years, sea sand is the main source of the fill materials. The contractors used to import the sea sand from the neighbouring countries such as Indonesia. However, in early 2000, the sea sand import from Indonesia and Malaysia was banned. Cambodia, Myanmar, and Philippine therefore became the alternative sources for sea sand. Distance between the jobsite and these countries is over 1,200 km, and transporting sea sand from these areas became a critical issue that could affect the contractor’s performance. Figuring out the right combination of transportation means for a longdistance sand transportation would be challenging because of uncertain situations. We developed a stochastic simulation model, using ARENA, to figure out the right quantity of small-size barges, bulk carriers, and loading/unloading equipment, which could help project managers yield the most production for sand transportation. This paper presents how we developed the simulation model, how it was applied to figure out the optimum combination among various size barges, different bulk carriers, and various types of loading/unloading equipment, for the sand transportation project in Singapore.
Keywords: Sand; Transportation; Models; Model; Process; Processes; Construction; Projects; Simulations; Simulation;
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