HUMAN FACTORS DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR LOAD-HAUL-DUMP VEHICLES
The Load-Haul-Dump (LHD) vehicle is a trackless, free-steered vehicle used in underground hardrock mining to move large quantities of ore/rock to haulage trucks, ore dump locations, or crushing stations. The purpose of this paper is to show, through case study examples, how principles of human factors can be applied to improve the overall design of the LHD vehicle to enhance line-of-sight (LOS), improve posture and decrease whole-body vibration exposure (WBV). Vehicle modifications (larger cab windows, lower engine profile, smaller buckets, angled radiator profile) can lead to improved line-of-sight. The use of secondary viewing devices, such as cameras, can also improve line-of-sight and allow the operator to adopt a more neutral sitting posture. Seating systems that are suited to the underground mining environment can result in vibration attenuation and less vibration transmitted to the LHD operator. The connection between vehicle design, line-of-sight and driving posture needs to be considered in order to continue to improve the design of the LHD and enable the operator to work in a neutral posture with minimal vibration exposure. Changes leading to improved line-of-sight, vibration reduction, and a neutral sitting posture will lead to fewer LOS related accidents and decreased risk factors for musculoskeletal injury.
LHD; vibration; Operators; Design; Vehicles; Systems; LHD vehicles; Line-of-sight; Health;