World Mining Congress
The Cenozoic unconsolidated strata with the thickness of 100 to 240m in the east area of China are composed of clay, sandy clay and hardpan, etc. Numerous shafts of the coal mines in these areas have been damaged to various degrees since 1987, with the main reason for this being the subsidence of the super-thick unconsolidated strata. To prevent the continuing settlement deformation of unconsolidated strata caused by groundwater removal, long-term water injection through multiple boreholes controlled the settlement deformation of unconsolidated strata. A new type of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system was successfully used for real-time strain monitoring of the unconsolidated strata during water injection at a coal mine in China. A mathematical model for the compression settlement induced strain calculation is proposed which can assist understanding of the effect of water injection on the ground. With the increase in water injection, the unconsolidated strata compressed state was improved by the transition of the stress state from compressive to tensile stress. The wavelength change of fiber Bragg grating sensors corresponded with the trend of the water level in the same strata. Engineering practice indicates that these sensors can normally, safely and reliably survive conditions associated with hydrous unconsolidated strata. The FBG sensing can be used for continuous lifetime monitoring of the system, starting with real-time monitoring during low-pressure water injection process of multi-borehole. The results will give important guidance for water injection and mastering stratum subsidence.
Keywords: Waters; Water; Strain; Boreholes; Ground waters; monitoring; Settlement; Change; Consolidation;
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