3D SEISMIC EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES IN THE MINING DISTRICT OF CHINA
Three dimensional (3D) seismic exploration has been carried out since the 1980s in the mining district of China, where it has been playing an indispensable role in the high yield and efficiency of coal mining. Unlike oil exploration, this technique uses high density seismic acquisition technology. In recent years, it has focused on wide azimuth 3D seismic acquisition. Evaluation of geometry moved away from depending on folds, azimuth and offset, toward being based upon a focus-ray beam. Conventionally, coalfield 3D seismic interpretation focused on time domain and was based on kinematics information, which is only suitable for less complex geological conditions. To achieve high-resolution processing for the complex topography and structure in coalfields, data processing shifted from poststack to prestack. The means to improve the accuracy of interpretation for complex geological conditions are 1) integration of multiple attributes and multiple disciplines, 2) combination of seismic and geological data, and 3) comprehensive combination of time domain and depth domain data. With the demand for lithological exploration, high-resolution data processing must also take into account the requirements of preserving amplitude in seismic data. Seismic attributes technology, seismic inversion technology, and dynamic tracking interpretation are key techniques in 3D seismic exploration. They greatly improve interpretation accuracy, produce better results in the goaf space description of the coal-bearing strata and coal seam structure, and effectively reduce exploration costs under complicated geological conditions. Therefore, these techniques will be the primary means employed in the future to deal with coalfield complex structure and lithological exploration.
mining; Data; waves; Acquisition; Processing; Seismic exploration; Technology; Seismic data; Coal seams;