World Mining Congress
Underground mining of copper ore in the Legnicko-Głogowski Copper District basin generates a number of seismic events, whose energy often exceeds 108 J (Butra, 2010). The number of tremors and their location shows that the area of rock mass involved in the deformation and failure processes significantly exceeds the area of mining operations. Locations of seismic foci of high energy tremors, as well as the aftershocks that accompany them, extend hundreds of metres, confirming that processes to restore the energy balance of rock mass occur in a short amount of time and over a wide area. Thus, an area of similar size should be considered in predictive analyses of the tremor’s position. It should be emphasized that a large portion of the rock mass still has a level of freedom resulting from the way the rock mass is held together and its geometric continuity. This level of freedom is dependent on the scale and duration of mining, the number and size of natural structures, and rock mass pressure, including gravitational pressure constricting individual fragments of rock mass in the area (Burtan, 2012). It can therefore be assumed that in real conditions, areas where mechanical strength of the layers has been exceeded may be located a considerable distance from each other and do not necessarily need to coincide with the working area location. In this sense, a rock mass influenced by mining exploitation is essentially a rock mass in which numerous fragments with concentrated energy exist simultaneously. Energy will be released within these rock mass areas each time rock mass strengths are exceeded by the induced stress changes related to mining operations.
Keywords: energy; Rocks; Rock; mining; Exploitation; Deposits; Model;
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