UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES IN SWELLING ROCKS
In this paper, we review cases in which dramatic and visual swelling problems are experienced in underground structures. Swelling rocks have caused many problems in underground engineering projects. They pose severe problems to the design, construction and maintenance of underground openings. If an appropriate integrated design procedure, which proceeds from exploration, tests, analyses and realistic assumptions of swelling behavior, is used during the design stage, the execution of the project can be completed without any serious delays or dramatic design changes. The case histories were subdivided into three classes that include tunnels, underground coal mines and others. For the evaluation of cases, the surrounding rocks, swelling minerals, water inflow, swelling test results and swelling problems were considered. The main purpose of this review is to inform the reader about potential problems with swelling phenomenon and to emphasize the rehabilitation and extensive cost which are encountered due to the lack of necessary integrated design approaches.
Swelling; Tunnels; Rocks; Rock; Clay; Clays; Underground; Design; Support;