World Mining Congress
Tunnels in deep mines are subjected to high stresses. Fracture and failure of the rock mass around an opening can occur when mining-induced stresses are high. In burst-prone grounds, mining-induced seismicity can cause additional dynamic loading which can further increase the stress around the tunnels. When the dynamic stress reaches the rock mass strength, fracturing can occur and rockburst may happen (depending on loading stiffness around the failed rock mass). Rock support installed in the tunnel must be capable of dissipating dynamic energy and holding the failed rocks. Hence, it is important to estimate the depth of failure for rock support design. This paper focuses on how to model depth of failure under dynamic loading. In the modeling, two scenarios of rock failure are considered. In the first scenario, rock failure occurs under static loading and subsequent dynamic loading further increases the depth of failure. In the second scenario, no failure occurs under static loading but in the subsequent dynamic loading, failure around the tunnel is created.
Keywords: Models; Model; stress; Failure; failures; Loading; Rock; Rocks; Tunnels;
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