Weak Rock Mass Span Design - Best Practices
Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Andrea Ouchi, Rimas Pakalnis, Tom Brady,
This paper presents ground control best practices in weak rock environments including the "Unsupported" Weak Rock Updated Span Design Curve and awareness pertaining to the potentially detrimental effects of using resin grounted rebar in weak rock masses and the false sense of security that the use of resin grouted rebar may instill. Ground support is almost always used in weak rock environments, though the type of support used can vary widely. The development of the weak rock augmented Span Design Curve by the addition of 463 case histories of RMR76 values ranging from 25 to 60, has also been calibrated to four different support categories; Category A: Pattern Friction Sets, Category B: Pattern Friction Sets with Spot Bolting of Rebar, Category C: Pattern Friction Sets with Pattern Rebar Bolts and Category D: Cablebolting, Shotcrete, Spiling, Timber Sets or Underhand Cut and Fill. Design of underground man-entry type excavations in North America relies heavily upon empirical analysis. This design requires a higher Factor of Safety than other non-man entry type excavations. A comparison of the calculated ½ span failure Factor of Safety between all the categories is also presented.