Measurement of Surface Roughness of Rock Discontinuities

Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Abstract Roughness of a discontinuity may be an important factor influencing shear strength of the discontinuity. Determining the roughness of a discontinuity surface and providing a numerical measure of the roughness has required traditionally considerable effort or specialised equipment. The development of new 3D imaging tools that are easy to use has provided effective fast and accurate means of creating 3D surface models from which roughness measurements can be readily obtained. These new techniques are versatile enough to enable a user to measure roughness along any desired profile and at any resolution up to the limit of the spatial subtense of an image pixel on the discontinuity surface. This paper reviews extensions to the use of 3D imaging that enable the measurement of roughness and provides some examples of the measurements. The paper also examines some of the issues associated with extracting measures from the spatial data that will support estimation of shear strength.
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Giovanni Barla, Peter Kaiser, Giovanni Grasselli
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Ali Fakhimi, Ehsan Alavi Gharahbagh
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Fereidun Rezanezhad, Paul R. Young
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Paul Antony Selvadurai, A.P.S. Selvadurai
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Summary: VALE Inco’s Coleman Mine 153 Orebody is a narrow vein deposit with a dip that varies from 30 to 70 degrees. The primary mining method, in the 153 Orebody is mechanized cut-and-fill. The ore body is divided into 6 levels.

This paper will further examine the challenges related to mining in the 4550 level at a depth of 4600ft. The 4550 level is currently being mined at cut 13, leaving a 40 ft crown pillar between this level and the 4400 level above it. Significant factors such as: the...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Zahra Hosseini, Denis O'Donnell
Year: 2009
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Summary: Rock engineering will play an important role in siting, design, and construction of a deep geological repository (DGR) for used nuclear fuel waste. Post-construction activities during operation such as excavation maintenance, monitoring, decommissioning, and closure will also require rock mechanics expertise. The type of host rock selected for a DGR will influence the scope of rock engineering activities and related research requirements. Both crystalline and sedimentary rocks are being...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Kenneth Birch
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: In this paper a statistical multi-scale method for the mechanics parameter prediction of the rock mass with random distribution of multi-scale cracks/joints is presented. First the micro-structure of the rock mass with random distribution of multi-scale cracks/joints is represented. Then the statistical second-order two-scale method for the mechanics performance predictions of the rock mass structure with random cracks/joints distribution is presented, including the statistical second-order...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Yanjing Shan
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Li Li, Michel Aubertin
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Peter K. Kaiser
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Summary: The load-deformation response of discontinuous rock under static and dynamic loading conditions has been simulated using Finite Element models. The intent of the analysis was to investigate the effects of specimen size and confining stress on strength, dilation and comminution.
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Stephan Arndt, Brent Fillery, David Beck
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: Luiz Castro – Golder Associates
Nic Lightfoot – Golder Associates
Trevor Carter – Golder Associates
Submitted to: 3rd Canada-US Rock Mechanics Symposium & 20th Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium

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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: The Zone G crown pillar, located between the bottom of the open pit and the top of the underground workings, was recovered at the Raglan Katinniq Mine in Nunavut in the summer of 2008. This article describes the rock mechanics-based approach implemented to design the recovery of this valuable block of ore, whereby the ShapeMetriX3D photographic technique was first used to provide a comprehensive assessment of the various joint sets that comprised the pillar. The statistical distributions...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Keywords: Crown pillar, characterisation, Numerical modelling, Statistical variability
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Year: 2009
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Ben D Thompson, David B Counter, Murray Grabinsky, William F Bawden
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Summary: Roughness of a discontinuity may be an important factor influencing shear strength of the discontinuity. Determining the roughness of a discontinuity surface and providing a numerical measure of the roughness has required traditionally considerable effort or specialised equipment. The development of new 3D imaging tools that are easy to use has provided effective fast and accurate means of creating 3D surface models from which roughness measurements can be readily obtained. These new...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Year: 2009
Text
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Patrick Mercier, Richard Harrisson, Richard Brummer, Patrick Andrieux
Keywords: Extensometer, Instrumentation, Shaft, Geomechanics
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Summary: Massive landslides display complex deformation processes. For instance, slope movements of the Downie Slide, monitored using borehole inclinometers, extensometers, and survey monuments, show considerable spatial and temporal inconsistencies in the displacement rates. This study assesses the influence that inferred shear surface geometry and mechanical strength parameters, which are key factors contributing to variable slope movements, have on resolving spatially and temporally discriminated...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: The Department of Mining Engineering at Queen’s University
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The primary aim of this study was to cover each component of a
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Euler M. De Souza, Luc Beauchamp
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Summary: The Department of Mining Engineering at Queen’s University
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from preparation to transportation to placement.

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typical mine backfill system, and to identify potential incidents
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Summary: This paper outlines a reasoned argument that no large-scale fracturing or faulting will be induced in the host rock by a deep geological repository (DGR) for used nuclear fuel waste. Four DGR designs in three possible host rocks, including crystalline and sedimentary rock types, are considered. The reasoned argument draws from results of previously conducted thermal-mechanical analyses and simple scoping calculations using closed-form solutions, along with evidence from experiments...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
Author(s): Kenneth Birch
Keywords: Nuclear waste disposal, Deep Geological Repository, excavation damage, DGR, large-scale fracturing
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Summary: Reliable estimation of in situ stress is a major step in the analysis and design of underground excavations in rock, particularly for evaluating the stability of underground structures to prevent failure or collapse. In the last ten years, the Western Australian School of Mines (WASM) has studied and developed an AE stress
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: Abstract: Columnar joint basalt is a poor integrity and fractured rock mass, exiting a lot of small spacing structural planes. Through a comprehensive study of the columnar shape of columnar joints, rugosity of the fracture surface and the chemical composition of basalt, the primary genetic mechanism for the columnar joints of Bai hetan dam area is the condensing shrinkage effect of magma. Columnar joint basalt alteration is mainly chloritization, kaolinization, epidotization, tremolitization...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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Summary: Seismic areas were in the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plain, whose structures were complicated, mainly composed of Maowen fault, Yingxiu fault and Pengxian-guanxian fault. The rapid rise of the Qinghai-Tibet plain led the crustal material of the eastern edge to move to the southeast along the faults on a large scale since the late Cenozoic; Minshan block structure and Long Men Mountain tectonic zone represented the strong nappe thrust movement as the east boundary of Chuanqing slip...
Proceedings: Rock Engineering 2009 - Rock Engineering in Difficult Conditions
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