NASA and Lunar Mining & Construction Activities and Plans

CIM Toronto 2009
Kurt Sackstede, William Larson,
Abstract The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth’s orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth’s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission’s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is the need to implement efforts that are sustainable and affordable. One area NASA is developing that can significantly change how systems required for sustained human presence are designed and integrated, as well as potentially break our reliance on Earth supplied logistics, is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, also known “living off the land”, involves the extraction and processing of local resources into useful products. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, fuel cell reagents, and radiation shielding can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. Also, the ability to modify the lunar landscape for safer landing, transfer of payloads from the lander an outpost, dust generation mitigation, and infrastructure placement and buildup are also extremely important for long-term lunar operations. While extra-terrestrial excavation, material handling and processing, and site preparation and construction may be new to NASA and other space agencies, there is extensive terrestrial hardware and commercial experience that can be leveraged. This paper will provide an overview of current NASA activities in lunar ISRU mining and construction and how terrestrial experience in these areas are important to achieving the goal of affordable and sustainable human exploration.
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Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Mathew Kowalczyk
Keywords: Sensor based sorting, new developments, x-ray transmission, conductivity sensor, Ore sorting, color sorting, x-ray flourescence, Pre-concentration
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Author(s): Joanne Petrini
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Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Mark Liner, Don Baxter, Al Mattes, Mark Liner, Don Baxter, Al Mattes
Keywords: mine closure plans, constructed wetlands, mine closure plans, dvanced minewater treatment, constructed wetlands
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Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Thickener, Solid-Liquid seperation, Settling, Feedwell
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Keywords: TSL, yielding, Polymer, TSL, RockWeb, Support
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Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Markus Poetsch, Wulf Schubert
Keywords: 3D image, rockj engineering, computer vision, Geological mapping, photogrammetry
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Summary: This paper will discuss current activities related to In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) and mining currently undertaken by the Canadian Space Agency and the potential synergies and benefits of the space sector from the mining sector and as well that of the mining sector from the space sector.
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: space, Mining, Concepts, ISRU, Prototypes
Year: 2009
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Summary: Autonomous Mining, Collision Avoidance, Proximity Detection, VOIP, Video, – does current technology enhance these capabilities? What do we have today? What do we need in the future?
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: Mineral project performance appears to lag other industries. This presentation reviews a set of over 100 recent projects to identify the practices teams can use that drive the better performing projects and the factors that account for the poor project resuls.
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Frederick P. Biery
Keywords: Cost, Feasibility, Pre-Feasiblity, Teams, Safety, Projects, FEL, schedule, VIPs
Year: 2009
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Summary: This paper will provide examples of Technology Transfer from terrestrial mining to space as well as discuss the influence of terrestrial mining practices in the development of prototypes for space mining.
Examples will also be given of technology specifically developed for space mining that have been applied or could be applied in terrestrial situations.
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Technology transfer, Terrestrial mining, Space mining
Year: 2009
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Summary: Greg Gosson has a Ph.D. in Geology and has worked more than 25 years in the mining and mineral exploration industry. He has been involved in grassroots exploration, through to feasibility studies, mine construction and production. Greg’s was Chief Mining Advisor for the BC Securities Commission and is currently the Technical Director of Geology and Geostatistics for the Mining and Metals Consulting Group of AMEC.
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: NI 43-101, technical reports, Regulations, material change
Year: 2009
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Summary: Thr Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) through its Canadian Trade Commissioner Service (TCS) assists organizations and companies to succeed globally.
The TCS offers key services such as Preparation for International Markets, Market Potential Assessment, Qualified Contacts and Problem Solving. The TSC is committed to working with companies and organizations involved in different sectors, including the mining sector. Examples of such work will assist the participants...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: This presentation explores how recent improvements in information technology can be leveraged to help improve mining efficiency and production. More specifically, it will discuss: how advances in mobile wireless communication technology are enabling the broader use of information systems in mining, the importance and benefits of an integrated systems approach requiring a shift away from proprietary to open systems and the need for up-front system engineering and design as a prerequisite
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: During this session, the Mining Industry Human Resources Council (MiHR) will launch the industry’s new Explore for More brand. Developed in collaboration with the Mining Attraction, Recruitment, and Retention Strategy (MARS) steering committee and through market research, Explore for More has been created by industry, for industry. Learn more about the brand and how your organization can utilize its component.
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Under-represented Groups, Attraction, Recruitment, Human Resources, MiHR, retention
Year: 2009
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Summary: The execution of Victor Project, Ontario’s first diamond mine located in James Bay, was presented to CIM last fall. To augment the succesful construction of the project a highly prepared “Opscap” (operations capability) program was embeded in parallel with the design-build of the new mine. This presentation describes the structuring and methodologies applied to prepare the operations team along with all the support systems needed for them to perform. The presentation touches on the pivotal...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Tony Copland, Brian Leonard Rausch
Keywords: Opscap, Remote Artic, Operations Capability, Ramp up, Sucess Factors
Year: 2009
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Summary: The power required to operate a ventilation system can be 25% to 45% of the total energy requirements of the mine. In an effort to reduce energy consumption, initiatives are being introduced at Vale Inco to increase the efficiency of ventilation systems with the objectives of decreasing energy useage.
One energy conservation measure being introduced is the use of variable frequency drive (VFD) starters for fan motors. Advancement in technology is making VFD applications more of a standard...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Robert DaPrat
Keywords: Energy, VFD, motor, fan, Power, starter, Ventilation
Year: 2009
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Summary: Smart leaders focus on safety even in tough times, says Barrick's VP Safety and Health, Don Ritz. Businesses that retreat into survival mode and ignore safety do so at their peril, risking loss of employee and investor confidence and exposing themselves to high financial and reputational loss they can ill afford. It's a moment of truth when employees and stakeholders learn whether safety is truly your priority or just a convenient cliché for good times. Visionary leaders who build safety...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: This presentation will highlight how Mining Matters participated in the 2008 First Nations Natural Resources Youth Employment Program (FNNRYEP), held in partnership with Outland Forestry and Confederation College. The seven-week live-in professional and personal development program is designed to facilitate future employment in the natural resource sector. Twenty-six youth, aged 15 to 19, traveled from 15 northern Ontario aboriginal communities to participate. Mining Matters provided five...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: During this session MiHR will promote the Mining HR Guide for Aboriginal Communities. This resource informs Aboriginal career practitioners of the careers at each stage of the mining cycle and how to prepare individuals in their communities for employment in the mining sector. The resource contains job descriptions, educational requirements, key resources and contact lists, as well as tools to help career practitioners and individuals prepare assess their fir and readiness for mining-relate...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Kelly Lindsay
Keywords: Human Resources, Aboriginal peoples, Diversity
Year: 2009
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Summary: Cobalt is not generally found alone in commercial deposits but mostly occurs as a small but valuable constituent in most nickel and a few copper ores . Its concentration and extraction are therefore intimately linked to the recovery of the primary metals and the major task for the metallurgist is to extract cobalt of commercial grade from a much larger mass of either nickel or copper and sometimes both. This paper provides an overview of the mineralogy of the main deposits being currently...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Kenneth Erwin Scholey, Peter Frederic Wells
Keywords: Cobalt, Metallurgy, Laterite, Extraction, Mineralogy
Year: 2009
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Summary: Lac des Iles Mine is located approximately 100 km north of Thunder Bay, Ontario. The mine has been in operation for approximately 15 years starting with a 2,400 tpd open pit mine and concentrator followed by expansion to 15,000 tpd in 2001.

This paper will discuss the following:
• Geology of the deposit
• Brief description of the open pit and underground mining methods
• Concentrator flowsheet and production
• Construction of new Tailings dam

The major theme of this paper will concentrate...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The performance of tires for surface mining operations has come down to a single objective: "how can I make my tires last longer?" Recognizing that there is strength in numbers, the members of the Large Tire Users Group continually reap the benefits of a collective effort, to work towards this goal.

This group is focused on a number of highly successful initiatives that benefits surface mining companies across Canada, North America and Australia and has clearly demonstrated the power that...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Bernard Jones, Paul Graham
Year: 2009
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Summary: This presentation will profile The Mining Association of Canada’s recent work in engaging Aboriginal governments and communities, through its commitments in Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM). MAC recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding to take up the Assembly of First Nation’s Corporate Challenge, incorporating the AFN’s four pillars of partnerships, investment, procurement and employment. As a means of regional engagement, MAC has recently initiated an Aboriginal-Mining Forum in the...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The management and leadership of a mining operation is a challenge at all times. The pressure to make production, safety, and environmental goals is intense. At some point mining cycles will put every operator into periods of time where economic issues seem to over-ride all other concerns. This is when leadership is most needed. People are looking for leadership at these times, and if we lose focus on getting the job done safely, it can be disastrous. From catastrophic incidents due to...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: Predictive estimation of aqueous ammonia concentrations for open pit, mine project environmental feasibility studies is inadequately documented. A universal ammonia range has been proposed, but does not take into account temporal variability, which can be substantial in northern latitudes. A predictive model suitable for open pit mine environmental studies, drawing on agricultural industry research, is described. The quarterly model incorporates ambient temperature, wind speed, rainfall,...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Catherine Tina Ziten, David Robert Gladwell
Keywords: Ammonia, Feasibility, Open pit mining, modeling, Environmental
Year: 2009
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Summary: Panel Discussion
-Ryan Montpellier
-Ingrid Hann
-Heather Bruce-Veitch
-K. Johnston
Mining for Diversity is the result of MiHR’s Mining Attraction, Recruitment, and Retention Strategy (MARS). Over 27 mining companies, representing a vast array of mine types, commodities and regions, participated in the research and shared what worked for them in attracting, recruiting and retaining their employees. This session will briefly introduce the Mining for Diversity tool and will highlight several...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Explore for More, Youth, Launch, new Canadians, Marketing, Human Resources, women, Aboriginal peoples
Year: 2009
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Summary: This paper examines manning best practice in the Australian mining industry. In particular, the paper considers a range of mining operations and their manning levels as measured by operational benchmarking. The benchmarking results presented cover 15 open pit and 37 underground studies in Australia. The data was collected as part of AMC’s benchmarking and operational improvement studies conducted between 1999 and 2008.
The results examine overall manning levels in mining, processing and...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Stephen M. Williams, Mani Rajagopalan, Bronwyn Meadows Smith, Nicola J. Farrell
Keywords: Underground, performace, Evaluation, Benchmarking, Best Practice, Manning, Labour, Open pit, Productivity, key drivers
Year: 2009
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Summary: In the past 10 years, several wide-area human health and ecological risk assessments of mining and smelting sites have been conducted across Canada and abroad. Experience at these sites has highlighted various aspects of risk assessment that can contribute to cost-effective remediation or risk management. The main areas are related to: 1) data quality (e.g., study protocols, study design, data analysis); 2) studies that contribute to understanding of bioavailability (e.g., soil/dust...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Ruth Hull, Elliot Sigal, Glenn Ferguson, Lisa Marshall, Robert Willis
Keywords: Risk, human, Ecological, lessons, wide-area, Assessment, learned
Year: 2009
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Summary: Is it possible for mining organizations to increase production and profitability without making significant capital investments? The answer is yes. Learn how leading mining companies are reaping the financial and operational rewards of optimized equipment performance - without additional capital expenditures by leveraging the latest in:

• asset performance management software
• mobile fleet monitoring technology
• and reliability practices such as RCM2

Session participants will learn...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): James Nesbitt, Keith Donovan
Keywords: Equipment, Asset, mobile, software, reliabilty, Technology, RCM2, Performance, Fixed, Management
Year: 2009
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Summary: Some mine managers believe that despite new technology and equipment availability, mine drifting is encountering reduced advance rates. This could be a serious threat to the drill & blast mining method and maybe even mechanical rock excavations.

In contrast to these mining industry trends, the construction industry has purchased all available equipment and is achieving record advance rates. This occurred in spite of tougher restrictions imposed on tunnel-builders regarding health & safety...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The Buzwagi Project is owned by Barrick Gold Corporation and located in the Lake Victoria Goldfields area of Central Tanzania. The reserve has been established as 3.3M oz gold plus 110M lbs copper.
Feasibility Study and permitting were started in early 2006. Project Execution commenced in August 2007 and Start of Operations is scheduled for Q2 2009.
The project has been developed to include a 30Mtpa Open Pit Mine and 4.4 Mtpa Process Plant. Over a 15 year mine life, Buzwagi will produce...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The use of geological and grade block models has been standard practice in mine design for many years now, with a wide range of software available for creation and analysis. Although geotechnical parameters are of vital importance to mine planning there is very little in the way of commercially available systems for integrating geotechnical data into the mine planning and design process.

Sirovision is a new technology developed by the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): John William Korczak
Keywords: Geological mapping, operational improvement, geological modeling, geotechnical modeling, photogrammetry, 3D Mapping, Mine design, Geotechnical mapping, Mine safety, Sirovision
Year: 2009
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Summary: The recent global economic turmoil has implications for employment and labour market functioning for all of Canada’s productive sectors, including mining. The Mining Industry Human Resources Council has devoted significant time and resources over the last 5 years to collect and analyze labour market intelligence with a view to supporting enhanced workforce planning and development of our industry stakeholders. This presentation focuses on the Mining Industry Workforce Information Network...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: labour market information, mining occupations, labour supply, Human Resources, labour demand
Year: 2009
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Summary: With the pressure on mine and metallurgical mangers to take accountability for responsible corporate governance in their operational area, it is no longer acceptable to rely on central departments to manage safety, health and environmental impacts of the company's processes. Environmental impacts exist because of the production or mining process. Some of the inputs to the process are natural resources and some of the outputs are inputs to the environmental control equipment or plant. ...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Environmental management, Corporate Governance, Optimize Business Processes, Best Practice Techniques, Improved Confidence in Data, Accurate Reporting, Integrate Disparate Systems, Mine Production Management, Manage Safety and Environment, Business Control
Year: 2009
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Summary: There are mounting concerns surrounding mineral resource development in relation to mining footprint including water quality, waste management, and mine rehabilitation. Proactive, innovative technological solutions to: advance sustainable mining while reducing operating costs and long term liability; meet increasingly stringent environmental standards and regulations; increase value-added; and protect workers are needed. Building on the success of multistakeholder initiatives such as MEND and...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Tom Hynes, Louise Laverdure, Janice Zinck, Gilles Tremblay
Keywords: ecosystem risk, Mine Closure, footprint reduction, Reclamation, Water treatment, Tailings management, Sustainable development, Waste management, green processing
Year: 2009
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Summary: This session will focus on how climate change can pose both a risk and an opportunity for mining and exploration companies and will outline what mining and exploration companies need to know to about this area.

Part One - Regulatory Overview - Climate Change Compliance Systems

Update on Canadian federal regulatory system, including BC, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario.

Update on North American system including Western Climate Initiative and California

Update on Kyoto Protocol and EU ETS...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Barbara J. Hendrickson
Year: 2009
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Summary: Benchmarking is an approach to improve overall mining industry performance. Assessing your equipment fleet performance vis-à-vis others can lead to insights which can be turned into higher productivity.

With the support of the Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology (SMART), an organization with some 28 mining firms worldwide and 4 universities participating, the SMART Benchmarking Project was initiated in 2003.

The vision for this initial effort is to provide low cost...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Tom Demorest
Year: 2009
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Summary: Many sectors including mining are reviewing their carbon footprints in response to the prospect of an increasingly constrained carbon reality. Corporate goals vary greatly across public and private sectors from emissions information not available (or not disclosed) to carbon neutral (zero footprint). Corporate goals in the mining sector, based on a review of large multi-national companies, are relatively conservative, compliance driven and tend to be intensity based. Based on the current...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: As mining projects get larger and more complex there is a need to examine the use of project management techniques developed for large construction projects in order to ensure completion of the project on time and budget. In recent years the construction/civil industry has sought new methods to ensure that multi-million dollar projects involving multiple contractors, working in an increasingly legislated work environment, are delivered to the clients satisfaction. The paper describes these...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Author(s): Tom Harrison
Year: 2009
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Summary: The objective of the GARD Guide (Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide) is to be the premier reference for the mining industry, regulators, NGOs and the public on acid rock drainage prevention. The Guide will address the production of contaminants from sulphide mineral oxidation that can result in acid rock drainage (ARD), neutral mine drainage (NMD) and saline mine drainage (SD). The Guide, developed through INAP (International Network for Acid Prevention), the Global Alliance (GA) and other...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The oil sands industry plays a crucial role in Canada’s current global economic position and will play an increasingly important role in our country’s future, to support a strong economy and provide the energy and products we use every day.

Canadians will be greatly affected if the oil sands cannot be effectively developed. Some environmental organizations are portraying Canada’s oil sands as energy the world can do without, using incomplete and inaccurate information. A complete and...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Year: 2009
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Summary: The Paracatu Expansion Project III in Brazil was implemented between 2006 and 2008 to increase the existing capacity from 20 to 61 Million tons per year of gold ore treatment. This expansion led the Brazilian subsidiary of the Canadian Kinross Gold Corporation to become the single larger gold producer in Brazil and the largest single gold concentrator in the world, with a nominal capacity to treat around 167,000 tons per day of ore. This paper describes the Project Development areas for the...
Proceedings: CIM Toronto 2009
Keywords: Gold processing, Paracatu, Project
Year: 2009