Using Effective stress theory to characterize the behaviour of backfill

9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Matt Helinski, Martin Fahey,
Abstract ABSTRACT: . The importance of understanding the behaviour of CPB within the framework of the effective stress concept is highlighted in this paper. Only through an understanding built on this concept can problems such as barricade loads, the rate of consolidation and arching be fully understood. The critical importance of the development of stiffness during the hydration process, and its impact on factors such as barricade loads is used to illustrate why conventional approaches that implicitly ignore the effective stress principle are incapable of capturing the essential components of CPB behaviour.
Keywords: Effective, Barricade, Consolidation, Modelling, centrifuge, Cemented, Pastefill
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Mike Keen, Robert Cooke
Keywords: Waste disposal, Backfill, Environmental, Paste
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Maru Talavera
Keywords: Distribution, Design, Slurry, hydraulics, Design, Distribution, Slurry, hydraulics
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Eliane Fried, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Bruno Bussière, Tikou Belem
Keywords: metal fixation, selective dissolution, leaching test, mining and environment, cemented paste backfill, cement hydrates
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Bruno Bussière, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Michel Aubertin
Keywords: Scanning electron microscope, Image analysis, cemented paste backfill, Mineralogy, Microstructural characterization, X-ray dot mapping
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Elizabeth Broad
Keywords: Hydraulic Fill, Bronzewing, Case study, Barricades, Drainage
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: Quality, Backfill, laboratory testing, Cemented rockfill, Mix design, CRF strength
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Paul D. Barrette, Mohamed Sayed
Keywords: flow rate, Mohr-Coulomb, bins, Numerical modelling, experimental, granular flow, Lagrangian-Eulerian, Particle-in-cell
Year: 2007
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Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Li Li, Michel Aubertin, Richard Simon, Tikou Belem
Keywords: arching effect, backfilled inclined stopes, stresses, Numerical modeling, Backfill
Year: 2007
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Summary: ABSTRACT: . The importance of understanding the behaviour of CPB within the framework of the effective stress concept is highlighted in this paper. Only through an understanding built on this concept can problems such as barricade loads, the rate of consolidation and arching be fully understood. The critical importance of the development of stiffness during the hydration process, and its impact on factors such as barricade loads is used to illustrate why conventional approaches that implicitl...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Matt Helinski, Martin Fahey
Keywords: Effective, Barricade, Consolidation, Modelling, centrifuge, Cemented, Pastefill
Year: 2007
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Summary: Despite the technology for designing backfill distribution systems being mature, a recent review of Canadian backfill operations reveals that 70% of backfill system failures relate to the distribution system (blockages, fill sloughing, pipeline bursts and hammering). The primary reason for these failures is a lack of understanding of the flow behaviour of hydraulic and paste fills.

This paper presents a review of the design process for backfill distribution systems highlighting the differenc...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: Transport, Design, Pipeline, Rheology, Backfill, Flow, Slurry, Paste
Year: 2007
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Summary: There is sort of uncertain correlation between the strength of cemented filling materials and the proportion of its components such as coal ash, cement, lime and sand, etc. which may be disturbed by random errors. Based on massive experimental results, the author established a multiple linear regressive model with help of the software Matlab. The model can help to figure out the correlation between the random variables and the controlled variables using experimental results, which is the...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Dongsheng Xu
Keywords: multiple regression, Strength forecasting, Cemented filling materials, Optimal proportion
Year: 2007
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Summary: Mine backfill has been widely used as a means of ground support. While proper design of backfill is important to ensure ground stability, understanding the failure mechanism and the various influencing factors in a filled block is essential. This paper presents a modified sliding failure model of a confined backfill block. The model considers both the gravity of the backfill itself and the overlying load from fragmented ore or backfill on the top. A series of new equations were derived and...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Nanthananthan Nadarajah, Zou Steve
Keywords: backfil, Underground mining, analytical model, cohesion, confined, friction angle, optimizing, overlying load, Factor of safety
Year: 2007
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Summary: Necessary capability of gravity pipeline transportation system of cemented coal gangue backfilling in Suncun Coal Mine, China, is about 74.4 m3•h-1 according to mining production and working times in the mine. It is estimated that working velocity and maximum pipe length-backfill depth ratio of the backfill system are 3.82m•s-1 and 5.4, and that probable backfill capability of the system is 110.18m3•h-1, respectively. Results of hydraulic calculation of the backfill system prove that designed...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Xin-min WANG
Keywords: hydraulic calculation, pipe length-backfill depth ratio, backfill capability, working velocity, flowability
Year: 2007
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Summary: This paper studies the effect of binder type and content on the early age development of cemented paste backfill (CPB). The early age development of the mixtures is analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). These tests show that the early age development of CPB is sensitive to changes in the paste composition. The properties of the CPB depend on the cement content and hydration time. The quantity of hydration products increases with hydration...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Dragana Simon
Keywords: cemented paste backfill, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Tailings disposal, scanning electron microscopy
Year: 2007
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Summary: The transportation of mine tailings in the form of paste material through pipelines is one of the main stages of mine backfill operations and waste deposition. For the purpose of pipeline transportation design, rheological properties of paste backfill such as yield stress and viscosity must be determined. To measure the yield stress of paste backfill directly, a rheometer with a 6-bladed vane spindle was used in two modes, controlled shear rate and controlled shear stress. The results show a...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Abdolreza S. Moghaddam, Ferri Hassani
Keywords: cemented paste backfill, the vane method, slump, yield stress measurement, Rheology
Year: 2007
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Summary: At South Deep Gold Mine longhole stopes will be backfilled using cemented cyclone classified tailings in its hydraulic state. The need to contain the hydraulic fill until it has hardened requires a barricade. Due to the massive size of the stopes, the tailings can exert enormous forces on any such barricade. Barricades have long been in use, but recent failures in Australia and the large rate of filling required at South Deep solicited a robust design. A robust design must examine all...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Stefan Nortje, Adriaan Mentjies, William Joughin, Sandor Petho
Year: 2007
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Summary: The stability of pastefill bulkheads forms an integral part of a successful pastefill system. Bulkheads are constructed at the draw points of open stopes to contain pastefill while the initial pour cures and forms a consolidated plug. Mobilization of uncured pastefill as a result of a bulkhead failure can lead to significant consequences, including endangering the safety of personnel, property damage and production losses and delays. The loading conditions in the pastefill and the resultant...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Mehmet Yumlu
Year: 2007
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Summary: Key point of cemented crude tailings backfill is dewatering and condensation of crude tailings. A new technology characterized by rapidly non-mechanical condensation of crude tailings has been developed based on a large number of laboratorial experiments and field test, where dynamic settlement and continual slurry preparation of crude tailings in vertical sand silo are eventually realized by addition of effective flocculating agent named as NPA. It is approved that sedimentation velocity of...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Qin-li ZHANG, Dong-sheng XU
Keywords: sedimentation velocity, adding system, Crude tailings, flocculating agent, non-mechanical condensation
Year: 2007
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Summary: Since 2001, CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratory in Sudbury have been involved with Falconbridge Ltd. (now Xstrata Nickel plc) to evaluate trends in the strength development and water retention properties of a novel backfill material for underground mining, termed Gelfill. Between 2004 and 2006, extensive laboratory tests were undertaken in the Sudbury laboratory of CANMET-MMSL under the Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC). The paper compares results obtained from samples...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Kristie Tarr, Graham Swan
Keywords: Backfill, mixing, gelfill
Year: 2007
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Summary: Abstract: A series of static and dynamic tests were conducted at NIOSH’s Spokane Research Laboratory to determine the effectiveness of using cemented mill tailings as backfill for underhand stopes in mines prone to rockbursts. This paper documents the findings of this study and the testing apparatus used to conduct dynamic tests. Underhand mining with cemented mill tailings for backfill has proven to be an effective alternative for mining in rockburst prone mines. Moreover, the ability of...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Jeff Johnson, Paul Pierce
Year: 2007
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Summary: Mine backfill retaining wall failures have been associated with economic losses, fatalities and interruption to mine production. Mine operators want to eliminate these fill retaining wall failures. Fibre-reinforced shotcrete is increasingly being used to construct underground fill retaining walls with engineered drainage systems to improve safety in hydraulic fill operations. The fill retaining wall failures associated with hydraulic filling could be avoided through an integrated approach to...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Tony Grice
Keywords: Water table, Safety, earth pressure, Hydraulic, Retaining-walls, Buttressed, Arched, Deep-drainage, pore water, Shotcrete
Year: 2007
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Summary: In order to mine safely with reasonable cost, it is necessary to research the fracture characters of backfill and its matches with rock mass. Four kinds backfill with cement-tailing ratio of 0.250, 0.125, 0.100 and 0.083 respectively were tested, and basing on stress-strain curves tested, the deformation characters and fracture laws as well as the damage constitutive equations investigated with damage mechanics whose calculating results are coincided with experiment results well were...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: constitutive equation, match of backfill and rock mass, Cemented tailings backfill, catastrophe theory
Year: 2007
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Summary: This investigation is part an overall investigation on the effect of sodium silicate on the properties of the mine backfill. The results presented will highlight the effects of binder dosage, sodium silicate concentration, and pulp density on the performance of stabilized sodium silicate-fortified sand pastefill samples. Binders implemented for these experiments consisted of cement, slag, and sodium silicate in various proportions. The binder content varied from 3 to 9 wt% (total dry weight)...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Ferri Hassani
Keywords: Mercury Intrusion Porosimetery, scanning electron microscopy, Sodium silicate, Strength Devalopment, Sand pastefill, Binder Content, Pulp density
Year: 2007
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Summary: Optimized mine planning of the Leeville Gold Mine, Nevada, necessitated the requirement for some 2800 tpd of high quality cemented rockfill (CRF) in primary stoping blocks. To meet this requirement, a number of innovative design features were incorporated into the overall batching plant design. Foremost is the use of a dedicated skip to transfer aggregate from surface down through the ventilation shaft to twin underground storage silos. Also, the use of a high shear colloidal mixer on surface...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Dennis Arbour
Keywords: Rockfill, Cement, mixer, Binder, batch, colloidal, CRF, Slurry, Aggregate, flyash
Year: 2007
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Summary: High hydraulic conductivity in hydraulic fill masses combined with the non-plastic nature of most hydraulic fills makes susceptibility to piping failure a high possibility in many hydraulic backfills. In order to achieve a piping type failure within a hydraulic fill mass a static head of water must exist above the fill material. As a result many hydraulic fill operations adopt a filling and resting criteria to ensure that the phreatic surface remains below the fill surface. Due to many...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Matthew Helinski, Tony Grice, Cameron Tucker
Keywords: Insitu monitoring, Hydraulic Fill, Water management
Year: 2007
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Summary: Barricade failure is a core geotechnical risk that is an inherent feature of any mining method employing paste or hydraulic fill. Historically within Australia the design of barricades has relied on simplified analytical solutions. Three-dimensional numerical modelling provides a method to explicitly model the actual barricade geometry, barricade construction materials, wall-rock interface and loading on the barricade. In 2005/06 a collaborative project involving six paste and hydraulic...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): David Sainsbury
Year: 2007
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Summary: Abstract:

Indications are that underground mining is gaining favour with large and small mining companies due to environmental and sustainability concerns.
Dramatic changes to mine fill technologies will be needed in order to keep pace with these emerging trends. The industry will be compelled to gravitate toward zero discharge mining operations. Innovative handling of mine tailings will become a focal point in this effort. The challenges are to use a greater portion of the residues and to...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Jacques H Nantel
Keywords: Innovation in fill, Large underground mines, Research, Mineral education
Year: 2007
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Summary: The underhand longhole bench extraction strategy at EKJV Management Pty Ltd’s Raleigh Mine requires simultaneous horizontal and vertical exposure of paste-filled stopes. In order to prevent excessive ore dilution, the paste fill must be of sufficient strength to prevent excessive failure during exposure.

A numerical modeling methodology has been developed to accurately simulate the initial stress distribution within paste-filled stopes, together with the strain-softening loading response of...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Robert Urie
Keywords: Paste fill, Numerical modeling, Exposure Stability
Year: 2007
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Summary: Increasing production when using backfill techniques involves many aspects including decreasing backfill cycles of stopes to their most efficient state. This study focused on determining the stability of thin shotcrete fill fences at a hard rock mine in northwestern Ontario during increased pour rates of paste backfill. Approved mine standards dictate that fill rates may not exceed 1.5 meters of paste depth per 10-hour shift when pouring behind a standard fill fence. One production cut is...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Rimas Pakalnis, Grant Corey
Keywords: Paste backfill, Fill Fence, Fence Stability, Paste Characteristics
Year: 2007
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Summary: Several research programs have attempted to monitor in situ the development of stresses within Cemented Paste Backfill in order to better understand how pressures develop on fill barricades, as well as how the fill may be more-or-less self supporting through the development of arching mechanisms. Most of these monitoring programs have used total stress cells, with a few also using piezometers to monitor water pressures that may develop within the fill. In some mines, however, the rate of...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): William Bawden
Keywords: stress measurement, Paste backfill, electromagnetic monitoring, Hydration, Instrumentation
Year: 2007
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Summary: In the Polish coal mining industry, the use of mine waste in underground backfill has been the most common means of:
• providing ground support to reduce surface subsidence,
• increasing extraction ratios,
• reducing the quantity of waste for surface disposal,
• reducing the spontaneous combustion of coal.
Waste fill used in Polish coal mines have evolved from early dumped rocks and hydraulically or pneumatically placed crushed rocks up to today’s hydraulically transported,...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: palarski
Year: 2007
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Summary: Mechanical stability, economical performance and environmental behaviour represent important performance criteria for a cemented paste backfill (CPB). During the last fifteen years several studies have been conducted to investigate the factors affecting these properties. However, until now, most of the studies were carried out on CPBs cured at “laboratory” curing temperatures (20-25°C). This means the deep mine temperature conditions were mostly ignored.
Recent explorative studies have...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): O. Nasir
Keywords: DEEP MINE, Safety, Performance, Paste backfill, economical, Stability
Year: 2007
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Summary: Pressure exerted on gold producers by regulators, project financiers and civil society in the wake of the Baia Mare tailings spill in Romania during 2000 prompted most responsible gold companies to sign up to the International Cyanide Management Code (the Code). The Code stipulates a ‘cradle to grave’ approach more comprehensive than that applied to any other mining reagent and is particularly challenging for operators who use cyanide-bearing tailings for backfill. This paper will examine...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: Backfill, Far West Rand, Health & Safety, Gold, Environment, Dolomite, International Cyanide Management Code, Mining, Cyanide
Year: 2007
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Summary: Surface paste tailings have been recently proposed as an alternative to “conventional” tailings disposal methods for surface storage. The main objective of surface paste tailings is the creation of a self-supporting homogenous (non-segregating) tailings stack without the construction of large water-retaining structures. Although the method is already used, the environmental behavior of paste tailings containing sulphide minerals is not yet well understood so it remains difficult to optimize...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Thomas Deschamps, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Bruno Bussière, Michel Aubertin, Tikou Belem
Keywords: surface paste tailings, acide mine drainage, leaching test
Year: 2007
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Summary: Backfilling of voids generated by underground mining is commonly performed to provide regional and local support, improve extraction rates and dilution control, and to allow for convenient waste rock disposal. This process may account for a major portion of the mining cost and has drawn substantial research interest from the mining industry. There is now a wide range of plant designs and delivery systems being used to conform to variable application conditions. Information and best practice...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Russ Evans, Jerry Ran, Richard Allan
Keywords: Mine Fill, extraction rate, Dilution, Quality control, regional support
Year: 2007
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Summary: The geotechnical engineering research group at James Cook
University (Australia) has carried out significant research on
hydraulic fills over the past five years. The group has worked
closely with the mining industry in Australia and has studied a
wide range of hydraulic fills, and barricade bricks. The findings,
which were disseminated through several publications in
international journals and conference proceedings, will be
summarised in this paper.
Since permeability of the...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Nagaratnam Sivakugan, Rudd Rankine, Shailesh Singh, Kandiah Pirapakaran
Keywords: Permeability, geotechnical, Drainage, Hydraulic Fill, FLAC
Year: 2007
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Summary: This paper evaluates the application of post consumer glass as a cementing agent in underground mine backfills. The underlying theory indicates that glass is pozzolanic and, when used in finely divided form, reacts as an activator to generate binding products, thus contributing to the development of backfill strength. The objective of this study was to evaluate the strength performance of backfills when Normal Portland Cement is replaced with various percentages of post consumer glass.

The...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Aubrey Sargeant, Jamie Archibald
Keywords: post consumer glass, Binder, backfill strength, Cement
Year: 2007
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Summary: Hydraulic fills are widely used in the tabular, steeply dipping stopes of the South African gold and platinum mines as an integrated process within a daily cycle of drill and blast. Therefore only a limited time window exists to fill the geotextile bags used as fill containment, without the risk of loosing production. Consequently, mines tend to increase the flow rate to the stopes, although this compromises adequate drainage, consolidation and strength development during filling.

Recent...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Keywords: Hydraulic Fill, risks of accidents, Geotextile, insitu measurements, backfill quality, laboratory testing, slumping, rate of rise
Year: 2007
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Summary: The history of mine backfill shows that in the past, considerable improvements in backfill-reliant mining technology were made when new fill systems were introduced. The present trend in mine backfill technology is towards the use of high-density fill systems as mines go deeper and ground stresses increase. Tight filling and void reduction have also become essential requirements in engineering design of mines to ensure global stability.

Composite fills are made up of derivatives of waste...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Ferri Hassani, Alfred Annor
Year: 2007
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Summary: Shizhuyuan Mine in Hunan Province is the biggest multi-metals deposit containing tungsten, molybdenum, bismuth and fluorite in China. The mine planed to employ total tailings as filling materials in order to dispose of mill tailings and make up for the shortage of backfill materials. But the slurry of multi-metals tailings contained a lot of residual chemicals such some dispersants as soluble glass, which caused that the fine particles of tailings kept in a suspended state for a long time....
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Aimin Zhou
Keywords: tailings dewatering, Tailings backfill, Flocculant, settlement property
Year: 2007
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Summary: The Doe Run Company has been extracting pillars in conjunction with placing CRF (cemented rock fill) since 1991. During that time over 10.5 million short tons of pillar ore have been extracted and over 4.5 million short tons of CRF have been placed. This utilization of CRF reduces back spans, minimizing both dilution and air blasts, and where applicable increases pillar stability by trapping pillars not being extracted. Open stope areas created by pillar extraction can reach up to 160’ in...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Lori R. Young, Harold E. McIntire, Thomas R. Yanske
Year: 2007
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Summary: ABSTRACT

HIGH STRENGHT AERATED CEMENT BULKHEADS

A sub-level open stoping method is being used to mine the massive deposits at TARGET Gold Mine which uses backfill. This requires the construction of bulkheads to contain the freshly placed backfill capable of resisting the hydraulic pressure imposed by filling. The bulkheads are required to contain an 8 meter load of backfill slurry within 48 hours and withstand the force exerted by a 35 meter load of consolidated fill, the maximum height...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): R M SMART, DANIEL JACOBUS RAS
Keywords: Bulkhead, AERATED CEMENT, Backfill
Year: 2007
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Summary: In order to maximize the recovery of ore in modern and highly productive mining methods, cemented backfill is normally placed in underground excavations to provide structural support. In order to save on costs, backfill of low cement content is used to fill the mined out excavations. This backfill mass is supported by a sillmat structure cast from cemented backfill of very high strength. Mining excavations progress under the sillmats, which must remain stable when exposed and subjected to...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Philip Dirige
Keywords: sillmat, centrifuge modeling, undercut mining
Year: 2007
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Summary: Paste backfill technology is becoming a common practice in underground hard rock mines worldwide, particularly in Canada. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is composed of mill tailings which are mixed with water and binding agents such as Portland cements, lime, pulverized fly ash, and smelter blast furnace slag. The use of CPB not only provides ground support to the pillars and walls, but also prevents caving and roof falls and enhances pillar recovery, which improve productivity. However, CPB...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Omar El Aatar, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Bruno Bussière, Erol Yilmaz
Keywords: Paste backfill, Backfill settlement, MIP Porosity, Column Tests, Backfill drainage
Year: 2007
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Summary: Engineers of the Spokane Research Laboratory (SRL)/NIOSH and Placer Dome, Inc., conducted a rockfill span test at Placer Dome’s Turquoise Ridge Mine near Golconda, Nevada. The purpose of the test was to improve safety and increase productivity by using the techniques of a proposed new bulk mining method instead of drift and fill. This test was conducted in competent waste rock so that the stability of the rockfill could be assessed without applying significant weight from the overlying...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Brad Seymour, Mike Jones, Lewis Martin, Bob Schuler
Keywords: Stability, span, undercut, Rockfill
Year: 2007
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Summary: DAVID BELL MINE UNDERHAND CUT AND FILL SILL MAT TEST

by

J. Donovan, Senior Engineer, Williams Mining Corporation

J. Dawson, EIT Underhand Cut and Fill Planner

W. F. Bawden, University of Toronto

ABSTRACT FOR CONSIDERATION FOR MINEFILL 2007 CONFERENCE

Underhand cut and fill mining is being planned for selected areas at the David Bell mine
where high ground stresses have resulted in particularly challenging mining conditions.
In order to trial the placement and performance...
Proceedings: 9th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
Author(s): Jaimie Donovan, Jeff Dawson
Keywords: Underhand Cut and Fill, Sill mat, Numerical modelling, Rock mass - fill interaction, Ground support, Instrumentation, Field test
Year: 2007
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