Processing history at Vale Canada’s (Inco’s) nickel-copper smelter at Copper Cliff, Ontario: Post-1950

CIM Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013
B. R. Conard Oakville, ON

It is critical that historical
processes and concomitant exposures to specific nickel substances be understood
because some diseases linked to inhalation of certain nickel-containing
substances have a long latency between first exposure and disease onset, and
because nickel substances vary significantly in their toxicological properties.
A discussion of the smelting history and related processes at Vale Canada’s
(Inco’s) Copper Cliff, Ontario, smelter is integral to the understanding of
these processes. The post-1950 processing history, equipment, propensity for
aerosol formation, operational procedures, and ventilation controls used by Vale
Canada in roasting, smelting, converting, and copper-nickel separation is
Keywords: Nickel, Inco, Smelting, Roasting, Inhalation of particulate, Process history
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