October 2015

CIM Journal & CIM Metallurgical Quarterly

Excerpts taken from abstracts in CIM Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4.
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Mixed spectral study of hyperspectral data for abundance estimation of ores in Gua iron ore mines, India

S. Patteti, B. Samanta, and D. Chakravarty, Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India; and D. Dutta, Regional Remote Sensing Centre-East (NRSC), Indian Space Research Organisation, New Town, Kolkata, India

ABSTRACT This paper presents the mixed spectral behaviour of iron ores from deposits in Gua, India. Spectral signatures of powder samples and their two-component mixtures were generated by spectroradiometry. Spectra were divided into continuum and absorption components. A modified Gaussian model was used to extract subtle features from the absorption components of the spectra. A linear unmixing model (LUM) applied to estimate minerals from the spectra of mixed powder samples indicated that this model achieved an R2 value of 0.88. The LUM was then applied to estimate the abundance of ores from a hyperspectral satellite image of the deposit area.

Successful application of a diesel particulate filter system at Vale’s Creighton mine

J. S. Stachulak, MIRARCO Mining Innovation, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; C. Allen, Vale Mining & Milling Technology, Copper Cliff, Ontario, Canada; and V. Hensel, Formerly MANN+HUMMEL GmbH, Ludwigsburg, Germany

ABSTRACT Vale has been actively evaluating new technologies to curtail diesel emissions. This paper discusses the selection, installation, operation, and evaluation of the MANN+HUMMEL SMF®-AR diesel particulate filter system to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in underground mines. The system uses a sintered metal filter element, an iron fuelborne catalyst with an onboard dosing system, an electric heater that uses onboard power, and a sensor-based control unit. More than 6,000 h of testing demonstrated that the system represents a breakthrough in the successful control of soot emission from light-duty vehicles with differing soot emission levels, exhaust temperatures, and duty cycles.


Les mines et le développement durable : controverses et défis

N. Bensalah, D. Ferrand, et C. Villeneuve, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada

ABSTRACT Conciliation between expansion of the mining industry and sustainable development requirements represents a great challenge. With regard to the various controversies touching this industry, the last decade was marked by a great mobilization phase of all stakeholders. However, there are still many shortcomings regarding operationalization of the sustainable development concept. This challenge involves shared responsibility between the stakeholders. It requires strengthening government accountability and instrumentalization of good corporate social responsibility practices. Further down the chain, the use of mining products and the promotion of innovation and research must be achieved through integrated management.


Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining

A. Salama, J. Greberg, B. Skawina, and A. Gustafson, Department of Civil, Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Division of Mining and Rock Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

ABSTRACT In an environment of rising energy prices and mining at greater depths, cost-efficient loading and hauling equipment is essential. Conducted at an underground mining operation, this study analyzes the energy consumption and gas emissions of diesel and electric load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) with similar bucket capacities. Based on current energy prices, results of discrete event simulation show that energy costs for diesel and electric LHDs are US$0.24/t and US$0.07/t, respectively. Also, diesel LHDs emit 2.68 kg CO2 per litre of diesel fuel, whereas using electric machines reduces the need for ventilation to mitigate engine heat and emissions and reduces energy costs.


Promoting transparency in Central African mineral development

C. Nwapi, Canadian Institute of Resources Law, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; A. Ingelson, Canadian Institute of Resources Law, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (and Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

ABSTRACT With growing international interest in mineral resources in Central Africa, the importance of transparency in resource development cannot be overemphasized. Without transparency, the region cannot maximize revenues from resources. Although the importance of transparency is beginning to be recognized, many factors can hold back the gains of transparency from resulting in real economic development for the countries involved. This paper reviews current financial, economic, and development literature for Central African countries, with a focus on identifying underlying conditions and specific transactional conditions impacting the effectiveness of transparency in mining development in the region.

Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly cover
Excerpts taken from abstracts in CMQ, Vol. 53, No. 1.
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Extractive metals from metallic powders recovered from waste printed circuit boards

P. Zhu; Z. B. Cao, G. R. Qian, Y. Sun, Q. Liu, Z. Y. Fan, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai and Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle (SWUST), Ministry of Education, China; and M. Zhou, Semiconductor Manufacturing International (Shanghai) Corporation, Shanghai, China

ABSTRACT Leaching behaviours of metallic powders were investigated using electrically generated chlorine at the anode chamber containing sulphuric acid solution, NaCl and CuSO4. Various parameters, which included the solid/liquid ratio, current density, concentration of NaCl, CuSO4, and H2SO4, leaching temperature, particle size, and stirring speed, were studied to understand the mechanism of leaching metallic powders. The capability of dissolved metallic powders increased with the increase in all parameters except the solid/liquid ratio. Leaching metallic powders were transportcontrolled with a low activation energy of 14.7 kJ mol−1. The dissolved copper could be transferred from the anodic chamber to the middle chamber by solvent extraction technology. In the electric field, copper ions are transferred from the middle chamber to the cathodic chamber through a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and electrodeposited to form copper foils. The tensile strength and elongation percentage of 65 􀀀m-thick copper foils were 276 MPa and 10.66%, respectively. The utilisation of metallic powders recovered from waste PCBs (WPCBs) could produce high-performance copper foil.

Uptake of Zn2+ from dilute aqueous solutions using protonated dry alginate beads

J. P. Ibáñez, Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y de Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile; and A. Aracena, Escuela de Ingeniería Química, Pontificia, Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile

ABSTRACT The uptake of zinc ions from dilute aqueous solutions was studied at 25 °C using protonated dry alginate beads (PDAB) of around 1 mm in diameter. The Zn2+ uptake increases with the pH of the Zn bearing solution, reaching a value of around 90 mg of Zn per gram of beads (dry weight) at pH 4·5. For an initial Zn concentration as low as 10 mg L−1, the removal reached was complete. The mechanism of Zn uptake was found to be ion exchange between zinc ions and protons form the functional groups of the beads, which followed a pseudo-second order kinetic behaviour. In equilibrium condition the experimental data followed the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum uptake reached were around 145 and 165 mg g−1 at pH values of 3.5 and 4.5, respectively, which is higher than most of the sorbents used for zinc removal. EPMA-EDX analysis shows that the functional groups of the PDAB were homogeneously distributed during preparation of beads, and that zinc ions were able to reach functional groups in the entire structure of the beads without a concentration gradient across the beads.

Effect of prior heat treatment on wear behaviour of 0.23% carbon dual phase steel

S. Bhowmick, Durgapur Steel Plant, Durgapur, West Bengal, India; and B. K. Show, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT The present study is aimed at understanding the effect prior heat treatment on the high-stress abrasive wear response of 0.23% carbon dual phase steel. Asreceived steel was subjected to annealing, normalising and hardening treatment prior to actual dual phase heat treatment. These steels along with the as-received steel were intercritically annealed at 745 °C followed by water quenching in order to produce dual phase microstructures. Abrasion tests were carried out at varying sliding distances with a 40 􀀀m abrasive and at 7 N applied load. Wear test at varying loads were also performed for the steel that showed maximum wear resistance. Dual phase treatment resulted in improved overall wear response. The wear resistance for the steel with prior annealing treatment (DPLA-1) and for the steel with prior hardening treatment (DPLA-3) improved over the entire range of sliding distance. It was also found that the wear rate increased with applied load for DPLA-1 steel.

Mechanical behaviour of thermomechanically produced ultrafine grained dual-phase steels

R. González, School of Engineering, Universidad Panamericana, Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, Mexico; J. O. García, L. F. Verdeja, E.T.S.I.M.O., Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; M. J. Quintana, School of Engineering, Universidad Panamericana, Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, Mexico; and J. I. Verdeja, E.T.S.I.M.O., Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain

ABSTRACT Dual-phase (DP) steels are an excellent alternative in the production of automotive parts that require high mechanical resistance, high impact strength and elevated elongation. These materials are produced using low alloy steels as a basis, reducing costs and resulting in a combination of martensite and ferrite structures with ultrafine grain size. These characteristics are achieved through strict control of rolling conditions, strain rate, cooling rate and coiling temperature. This work presents the results of tension testing of two types of DP steels, along with microstructural characterisation, in order to understand the effect of the advanced thermomechanical controlled rolling processes on the formation of the microstructure and resulting mechanical properties.

A comparison of hydrogen permeation and the resulting corrosion enhancement of X65 and X80 pipeline steels

X. Y. Peng, College of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; and Y. F. Cheng, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

ABSTRACT In this work, corrosion and electrochemical hydrogen permeation behaviour of two grades of pipeline steel, X65 and X80 steels, were investigated by hydrogencharging, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and metallographic observation. It was found that the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour of steels is affected by their metallurgical features. Upon hydrogen-charging, both high grade of X80 pipeline steel and low grade of X65 steel show enhanced corrosion activity. The electrochemical hydrogen permeation current measurements and calculations show that the X80 steel contains a higher density of hydrogen traps than X65 steel, which may potentially result in the increased susceptibility of X80 steel to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC).

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