Iron and steel making in the third millennium

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Mots clés : Metallurgy;Iron;Steel;Information technologies;Biotechnology;Iron making
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Texte
Sommaire: The contour method can be used to estimate the mineral resources of a mineralized body. It relies on geological interpretation and allows the geologist to determine the plunge of a mineralized ore shoot along the dipping plane of the mineralized body. The technique is best applied to estimate tonnage and average grade of relatively planar bodies, i.e., where the two dimensions of the mineralized body are much greater than the third dimension, such as Archean lode gold vein deposits or mantos...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): H. Agnerian, W.E. Roscoe
Mots clés: Estimation, Mineral resources, Tonnage, Average grades, Mineralization, Ore.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
Texte
Sommaire: The classical approach to control rock fall and ravel in open pit mining has been to use catch benches. The width and volume of benches is most dependent on the bench height, size of loading equipment, blast damage to the face and mining regulations. This was compatible with open pit slopes of less than approximately 45 degrees. As our understanding of rock mechanics and blasting control has improved over recent years, much steeper rock slopes can be developed at many open pit mines. However,...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): C.O. Brawner, J. Kalejta II
Mots clés: Catch fences, Blasting, Rock mechanics, Surface mining.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
Texte
Sommaire: Shotcrete is a practical and economical support system in many Canadian underground mines. Although shotcrete technology has gained acceptance in the mining industry, there are some problems that have emerged with respect to quality assessment and thickness measurement of the liner. This paper presents recent tests performed with miniature seismic reflection technology (MSR) developed and patented at McGill University primarily for thickness measurement of this heterogeneous liner. MSR is...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): M. Momayez, F. Hassani, P. Guevremont, D. O’Donnell
Mots clés: Shotcrete, Underground mining, Support systems, Miniature seismic reflection technology.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
Texte
Sommaire: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem that preoccupies the Canadian mining industry. Considerable amounts of money are spent every year in an effort to prevent or reduce the acid mine drainage phenomenon. AMD occurs when sulphide minerals (e.g., pyrite) contained in rock are exposed to air and water and subsequently oxidize to produce low pH water. This acid effluent has the potential to mobilize any heavy metals contained in the rock. Coating the sulphide minerals with...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): K. Fytas, P. Bousquet
Mots clés: Acid mine drainage, Silicates, Tailings, Leaching, Oxidation.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
Texte
Sommaire: The Beal Mountain mine near Anaconda, Montana, is an interesting case history of a mine that has continued operations despite several large pit wall failures over a period of approximately 10 years. The largest event involved some 3.9 million tons of rock that has moved steadily at a rate of about 0.05 ft/day since 1992. This paper documents the geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring programs implemented at Beal to provide the company with a comfortable baseline that supported ongoing...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): D. Stone
Mots clés: Stabilization, Instrumentation, Monitoring, Pit wall failure, Rock Mechanics.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
Texte
Sommaire: Black calcium cyanide is utilized mainly as a reagent for gold extraction. It is produced by reacting calcium cyanamide, sodium chloride and calcium carbide at temperatures in the range of 1200°C to 1400°C in a smothered arc furnace. The equivalent sodium cyanide content of the product is in the range of 45% to 50% and the calcium cyanamide conversion efficiency is in the range of 90% to 95%. Since black cyanide contains impurities such as salt and lime and also because the conversion...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Auteur(s): C.A. Pickles, J.M. Toguri, R.A. Bergman
Mots clés: Cyanide, Calcium cyanamide, Black calcium cyanide, Gold extraction, Heating rate, Conversion.
Numéro: 1063
Volume: 95
Année: 2002
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