Mineral Exploration in Africa

Africa is endowed with a number of the world's giant ore deposits which have contributed significantly to the development of their host countries. Mineral exploration has a long history in the continent, but mining on an unprecedented scale took off during the latter part of the 19th century, accompanied by the development of lines of communication and other infrastructure to service the major mining centres.
The "Winds of Change" which swept Africa in the 1950s and 1960s brought in new styles of government and economic management to a number of regions, often with demise of economic viability and infrastructure. In recent years, with the end of the cold war, collapse of communism and changes in South Africa, new opportunities for mineral exploration are opening up rapidly in Africa. However, due to the large cost, long lead-in time, and high risk of developing new mineral ventures in the continent, it is necessary for the host countries to draft realistic and favorable mineral laws and fiscal codes in order to attract, and not deter, potential mineral investors.
There will be an on-going role in mineral exploration throughout Africa for the artisanal miner, the smaller entrepreneurs and mining companies, exploration aid programs funded by the developed countries through African governments, as well as the major mining houses who have the resources to develop larger viable mineral deposits.
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Summary: Spontaneous heating of coal leading to fires is a serious problem in the coal mining industry. These fires create several problems, such as accidents, loss of coal reserves, sterilization of resources, diminution of the heating value and coking properties of coal, environmental pollution, etc.
In India, the crossing point temperature (CPT) method is used for estimating the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous heating; a low susceptibility is always predicted for coals with a high moisture...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D.C. Panigrahi, H.B. Sahu, N.M. Mishra
Issue: 4
Volume: 3
Year: 2008
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Summary: In the room-and-pillar mining methods, pillars form an important load-bearing element of the system, controlling the stability of the near field domain.  The effective performance of a pillar support system is related to the depth of working, dimensions of the opening and the pillars, as well as the extraction percentage of coal/ore. One of the historic methods of containing the ground failures over mine voids is through backfilling of the mine voids by river bed sand or mill tailings....
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.K. Mishra, U.M. Rao Karanam
Issue: 4
Volume: 3
Year: 2008
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Summary: The oil sands industry in northern Alberta disposes of the by-products of bitumen extraction into tailings ponds. The mix of tailings sand and mature fines, with gypsum added as a flocculent, constitutes a waste stream called consolidated tailings or composite tails (CT). The two main challenges of the tailings disposal process are a chronic shortage of economical containment and the potential mobility of CT deposits in the event of breaching by, for example, long-term erosion, which makes...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. Nichols, K. Czajewski, H. Keele
Issue: 4
Volume: 3
Year: 2008
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