Fahlore as an indicator of mineralization temperature and gold fineness

A method for determining the fineness of Au in electrum from the composition of fahlore coexisting with pyrite and chalcopyrite is presented. This method is based on previously published experimental brackets and activity-composition models for electrum and fahlore, and it is potentially useful for defining temperatures of hydrothermal mineralization and retrograde evolution of precious metals deposits. The authors demonstrate that it successfully predicts compositions of electrum reported for this assemblage in the literature and illustrate its application for three gold-quartz vein deposits from the Coeur d’Alene mining district, Idaho, that are prospects of the New Jersey Mining Company, the Coleman vein, High-Grade prospect, and Silver Strand mine. Temperatures calculated from average electrum compositions estimated from gravity concentrates (molar Au/(Au+Ag) = 0.76-0.39) and from microprobe analyses of the fahlores (molar Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.039 ± 0.004, Zn/(Zn+Fe) = 0.57 ± 0.03, As/(As+Sb) = 0.23 ± 0.02) from the Coleman vein indicate that the electrums underwent retrograde re-equilibration to temperatures between about 80°C and 240°C, roughly 80°C below the temperature of hydrothermal mineralization and 10°C to 40°C above the temperature inferred for retrograde equilibration of Fe and Zn between sphalerite and fahlore. Fahlores from the High-Grade prospect [molar Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.009 ± 0.004, Zn/(Zn+Fe) = 0.55 ± 0.11, and As/(As+Sb) = 0.04 ± 0.03] and Silver Strand mineralized zone [molar Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.10 ± 0.04, Zn/(Zn+Fe) = 0.63 ± 0.02, and As/(As+Sb) = 0.06 ± 0.02] exhibit strong core to rim depletions in Ag due to retrograde operation of the reaction

1/10Cu10Fe2Sb4S13 + Ag + FeS2 = Cu-fahlore electrum pyrite CuFeS2 + 1/10Ag10Fe2Sb4S13
chalcopyrite Ag-fahlore

which proceeds to the left with decreasing temperature. Electrum inclusions in arsenopyrite from the High-Grade prospect [molar Au/(Au+Ag) = 0.90 ± 0.02] define a minimum bound on the temperature of hydrothermal mineralization of 273°C, and the temperature-electrum composition curve constructed for the most Ag-rich fahlore in the Silver Strand mine indicates that the fineness of its electrum is significantly less than in the other deposits.
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Publication: CIM Bulletin
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: XPotential Products Inc. has developed technologies to convert auto shredder residues and other forms of plastic waste into useful products such as posts suitable for retaining walls and parking curbs. The technology is competitive provided low-cost plastic waste is available, and could have applications throughout the world. The paper describes the technology used and illustrates the various processing steps.
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J. Lazareck
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: The treatment of aqueous CuSO4-H2SO4-As-Sb solutions by electrodialysis in order to separate and concentrate species of interest has recently been studied. Results show that it is possible to separate copper from arsenic in electrodialysis cells. The separation of copper from antimony is also possible. Transport rate ranges that could be achieved, depending on experimental conditions, are 0.2 to 0.6 mol per hour per square metre of membrane for copper, 0.65 to 2.8 for sulphate, and 0.016 to...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): L. Cifuentes, J.M. Casas
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: Since its commercialization thirty years ago, the Recoflo® short bed ion exchange process has been extensively utilized for the recovery of a wide variety of acids and metal salts. In addition to a reduction in resin bed height from 200 cm to 300 cm to 15 cm to 60 cm, the process has a number of features such as utilization of fine mesh resins in a compressed bed which together make it ideal for a number of applications. The process has been extensively exploited, for example, in the metal...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.J. Brown
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: This paper presents the results of a research study that is being conducted by the Mine Effluents Program, Mining and Mineral Science Laboratory (MMSL), Natural Resources Canada aimed at evaluating biotechnology processes for the treatment of nitrogen compounds such as thiocyanide (CNS) and ammonia (NH4-N) which are present in gold mill effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology, commonly used for the biological treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, was used in this...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): A. Kapoor, W.D. Gould, P. Bédard, K. Morin
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: Gypsum scrap generated from wallboard manufacturing, construction and deconstruction activities in North America, Europe and Japan is a recognized environmental problem. Landfill disposal of this gypsum scrap is problematic, with deposits often creating hydrogen sulphide emissions and metallic sulphide groundwater leachates. Of these regions, Europe is the most advanced in dealing with the issue having enacted legislation, which will come into effect in July 2005 that will strongly encourage...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.A. McCamley
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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Summary: An open pit a mine can be thought of as a business unit, with capital, operating and maintenance costs that exceed those of many large business enterprises. Truck-and-shovel operations have an inherent “looseness” to them, unlike manufacturing or processing operations where production components are tightly coupled (through conveyors, material flow in pipes, assembly lines, and so on). Effective monitoring and control of truck-and-shovel operations requires a combination of both information...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.L. Richard
Issue: 1081
Volume: 97
Year: 2004
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