The spontaneous combustion characteristics of Turkish lignite and correlation of the self-heating process with the actual fire

Abstract Fires due to self-heating of coal have been a real problem since the beginning of mining. In order to minimize the harmful effect of fires caused by spontaneous combustion (sponcom), the tendency of coal for sponcom should be analyzed in detail. This paper presents the results of such research, which had two objectives: firstly, to determine the spontaneous combustion characteristics of lignites of all underground (u/g) mines of Turkish Coal Enterprises (TKÍ) in the laboratory; and secondly, to use these self-heating characteristics to predict the stage and progress of actual mine fires. Representative samples of 16 different lignite seams were prepared for tests in the laboratory. Crossing-point temperature and adiabatic oxidation methods were utilized to characterize the spontaneuos combustion risks. During the experiment, time and temperature were measured, and released gases were continously recorded. Sponcom results obtained by both methods were in close agreement with each other, and it was determined that Turkish lignites are susceptible to spontaneous combustion with medium to high risk. All the information obtained from the laboratory tests was utilized to predict the progress of an actual mine fire. Finally, a fairly good correlation was established between the spontaneous combustion test results and an actual mine fire caused by self-heating. Observations of CO emissions during an actual mine fire, which occurred in the Middle Anatolian Lignite mine, supported the suggested prediction method. This prediction method is currently being used in all TKÍ’s u/g mines.
Keywords: Spontaneous combustion, Mine fires, Crossing-point temperature, Adiabatic oxidation, Turkish lignites.
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Summary: Aqueous slurries of fine particle size calcium carbonate are used in a diverse range of end-use products. In many cases, the end-use performance is governed by the fineness of the particle size distribution. In turn, the maximum fineness of the particle size distribution is primarily determined by the efficiency of the dispersants used during the production process. Here, we report the sodium polyacrylate mediated dispersion of calcite and kaolin. Firstly, we report a colloid chemical...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): J.S. Phipps, D.R. Skuse
Keywords: Calcium carbonate, Calcite, Dispersion, Dispersant, Polyacrylate, Stabilization, Fine particle size.
Issue: 1070
Volume: 96
Year: 2003
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Summary: Potassium is one of the three basic plant nutrients along with nitrogen and phosphorus. There is no substitute for potassium compounds in agriculture; they are essential to maintain and expand food production.
Potash is extracted from buried ancient evaporites by underground or solution mining. This accounts for most of the potassium produced. Another important source is brine from land-locked water bodies, such as the Dead Sea, Salar de Atacama or Great Salt Lake. About 95% of potash...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): C.F. Perucca
Issue: 1070
Volume: 96
Year: 2003
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Summary: A strain-softening constitutive relationship is introduced that describes the post-failure stress-strain curve for rock regardless of whether the rock is intact or broken. The core of this relationship is an “apparent friction” concept that relates the post-failure apparent cohesive and frictional characteristics of the rock to the strain. The relationship can be determined for a given rock via a series of tri-axial strength tests establishing the peak strength and corresponding strain for a...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T.G. Joseph, K. Barron
Keywords: Failure, Friction, Coal, Rock mechanics, Stress-strain curve.
Issue: 1070
Volume: 96
Year: 2003
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Summary: The St. Lawrence deposit is a large wollastonite skarn (ca. 9 Mt @ 41.3% wollastonite) adjoining the gabbroic-to-syenitic Leo Lake pluton in the granulite facies Frontenac Terrane of the Grenvillian Central Metasedimentary Belt. It occurs within a horseshoe-shaped horizon of quartzite, open to the east. The skarn extends over 1.2 km2, and comprises wollastonite-dominant, wollastonite-clinopyroxene, and diverse quartz-feldspar-sulphide
(-titanite) layers, interbanded with, and strongly folded...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): T.A. Grammatikopoulos, A.H. Clark, B. Vasily
Keywords: Skarn, St. Lawrence deposit, Beneficiation, Wollastonite, Industrial minerals.
Issue: 1070
Volume: 96
Year: 2003
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