Chloride hydrometallurgy for complex sulphides: A review

Abstract The current state-of-the-art of chloride hydrometallurgy for treatment of complex sulphide bulk concentrates is reviewed. General considerations regarding the various flowsheet steps are examined and options discussed. Then, individual flowsheets are presented and discussed. Finally, the forward prospects for chloride hydrometallurgy for treatment of complex sulphide bulk concentrates is considered and conclusions drawn concerning the likely application of this technology in the future.
Keywords: Chloride hydrometallurgy, Complex sulphides, Leaching, Metal recovery, Solvent extraction.

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Summary: The Altair TiO2 pigment process is based on hydrochloric acid leaching of ilmenite at high-acid concentration. Titanium is transferred by solvent extraction into a high-purity aqueous stream with a high titanium concentration. HCl gas is recovered by pressure-swing distillation and is used to regenerate the leaching solution. A new method of TiO2 recovery in dense film with simultaneous dehydration and hydrolysis provides great flexibility in adjusting the characteristics of the TiO2 pigment...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): D. Verhulst, B. Sabacky, T. Spitler, W. Duyvesteyn
Keywords: Nanomaterials, Acid leaching, Ilmenite, Solvent extraction, Distillation.
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: The maintenance strategies in the mining industry are changing from operative and periodic inspection strategies to a condition-based, predictive maintenance strategy centred in vibration analysis plus complementary techniques. Condition monitoring can also help to improve availability by being able to pinpoint and diagnose problems on operating machinery at an early stage. This reduces unscheduled downtime and production losses. However, in mining, for shovels operating in transient modes,...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): P.N. Saavedra, E.A. Salamanca
Keywords: Maintenance, Condition monitoring, Downtime, Electromechanical shovel, Vibration.
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: Titanium possesses an exceptional and wide-range resistance to chlorides and their compounds when compared to most corrosion-resistant engineering alloys (CRAs) used in the chemical process industry. This natural resistance to chlorides stems from titanium’s protective, tenacious, and readily rehealable titanium oxide surface film, which is chemically stable over a wide range of pH and redox potentials in aqueous environments. This passive film explains titanium’s elevated resistance to...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): R.W. Schutz
Keywords: Titanium, Chlorides, Alloys, Corrosion, Metallurgy.
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: The recent trend in underground mine developments is “bigger is better.” This is most certainly evident in the mine shaft and conveyances that operate within its compartments. Today, there are several new installations requiring mine cages that can transport up to 170 passengers. The technology in mine hoisting is advancing to address a combination of higher capacity requirements, deeper hoisting depths and faster winding rates, however, some areas of the hoist plant have not changed in the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): S. Gorzalczynski
Keywords: Safety arrest mechanism, Mine shaft, Underground mining, Conveyances.
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: Since 1994, Aur Ressources has operated Louvicourt mine, a zinc and copper mine close to Val d’Or, at a rate of 4300 t/d. Ever since the start-up of the plant, management has encouraged innovative approaches in reliability. The first of three papers will discuss the vibration monitoring program in place. The program will be described and two examples will be given: detection of a rolling bearing defect on a pinion driving the ball mill and identification of wear on the bearings of the...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): G. Nollet
Keywords: Surface operations, Vibration analysis, Vibration measurement, Rotating equipment, Maintenance costs.
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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Summary: Many mines in Canada, the United States and South Africa are reaching the hoisting limit. Very little payload will be possible without compromising safety due to the excessive weight. It has been suggested (DeLorme, 2000) that one of the most attractive concepts to enable deeper hoisting is to reduce the allowable factor of safety in the wire rope. Researchers at the Spokane Research Lab are developing new technology to improve hoisting safety and productivity by providing new monitoring and...
Publication: CIM Bulletin
Author(s): M.J. Beus, M. Ruest
Keywords: Hoist rope, Shaft conveyance, Safety, Particle Flow Code (PFC), Shaft Conveyance Monitoring System (SCMS).
Issue: 1065
Volume: 95
Year: 2002
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